Malacostraca | Decapoda
PÃ©rez Farfante, I. and B. Kensley. 1997. (Ref. 75620)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 7.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 101681)
Benthic; depth range 2 - 420 m (Ref. 101592), usually ? - 80 m (Ref. 106549)
Climate / Range
Subtropical; 36°N - 29°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: from USA (North Carolina to Texas) to Mexico, Bermuda, Antilles (Cuba and Puerto Rico), Colombia, Venezuela, Suriname, French Guiana, and Brazil (Amapa to Santa Catarina).
Maximum length based from data in Tortugas, Florida, USA (Ref. 101681). Maximum depth from Ref. 79713. Found offshore; occasionally enters estuaries (Ref. 106823). On mouth of bays to 60 m, rarely observed to 420 m (Ref.79470). Associated with muddy sediments; abundant in sediments with high amounts of silt and clay (Ref. 104233). Also occurs on sand, organic debris and calcareous algae (Ref. 106549). Spawns during spring and summer; continuous reproduction at lower latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period at higher latitudes (Ref. 101677). Mating behavior: First contact, if the male was behind the female it immediately began to push under the female with its cephalothorax, but if from any other position, the male moved behind the female before pushing below it. The male then followed behind the female, it grasped or contacted the female's abdomen with its long antennal flagella, which quivered or vibrated during this "following" behavior. The dorsal cephalic region of the male, with the rostrum, eyes, and antennules, touched and prodded the female's genital area or thelycum, where the apertures to the female's seminal receptacles
are located. The male pushed upwards, tilting the female's body forward so that the genital region on the posteroventral cephalothorax was lifted well off the substratum. The male assumed the copulatory position by rolling upside down below the female, with the male's body perpendicular or slightly oblique to that of the female. In the copulatory position, the genital regions of the male and female were opposed. Copulation usually terminated when the male rolled back to an upright position and backed away slightly from the female, although the female sometimes broke off the copulation with sudden retrograde swimming by rapid abdominal flexion. After a copulation, the male frequently initiated following behavior again (Ref. 101680).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models