Sipunculidea | Sipunculiformes
Murina, G.V.V., M.A. Pancucci-Papadopoulou and A. Zenetos. 1999. (Ref. 775)
Size / Weight / Age
Benthic; depth range 100 - 3000 m (Ref. 1456)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 0° - 57°N (Ref. 775)
Indian Ocean and Mediterranean: Australia, Red Sea (Ref. 1456), Greece (Ref. 1819), Monaco, North Atlantic (from equator to 57 degrees North (Ref. 775)) and Southwest and Western Central Pacific (Ref.1871). Tropical to boreal.
Longitudinal muscle bands from 20 to 24; commonly, 21-22. Nephridia: short and free. Brain: elongated and flattened and lobes are not prominent; processes, not yet developed. Tentacular membrane: divided into 8-12 lobes or lappets. Body wall: often semi-transparent.
Known as a benthic species (Ref. 85346). Intertidal (Ref. 775) and subtidal to continental rise, shelf, slope (Ref. 1456); on mud (Ref. 775) and in deeper cool water in the sublittoral and bathyal depths (Ref. 1840).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models