Sipunculidea | Sipunculiformes
Cutler, E.B. 1994. (Ref. 1840)
Size / Weight / Age
Demersal; depth range 1 - 370 m (Ref. 1840)
Climate / Range
Pacific Ocean separates the two subspecies. Sipunculus phalloides phalloides: Caribbean from the West Indies, Barbados and Brazil; Eastern Pacific, from Costa Rica and Galapagos Islands; and, eastern Atlantic, off Ivory Coast. Sipunculus phalloides inclusus: Indonesia and southern Japan. Mostly tropical.
Sipunculus phalloides phalloides: large worm, has 35-41 longitudinal muscle bands (LMBs) and do not subdivide in glans region. Unattached nephridia. Nephridiopores are open between 4 and 8 LMBs. Spindle muscle, weakly developed. Ventral retractors originate from 1 or 2 LMBs and extend over 2-6 bands while dorsal start on 12-16 LMBs and spread over 2-6 bands. Sipunculus phalloides inclusus/i>: There is more fusion or splitting of LMBs from anterior to posterior (Ref. 1840).
Sipunculus phalloides phalloides: inhabits intertidal, shallow water species in the Caribbean, Eastern Pacific and Atlantic. Sipunculus phalloides inclusus/i>: Inhabits 1-370 m (Ref. 1840). Sipunculus phalloides phalloides: inhabits intertidal, shallow water species in the Carribbean, Eastern Pacific and Atlantic. Sipunculus phalloides inclusus/i>: Inhabits 1-370 m (Ref. 1840).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models