Echinoidea | Temnopleuroida
Gaspar, M.B., M.D. Dias, A. Campos, C.C. Monteiro, M.N. Santos, A. Chicharo and L. Chicharo. 2001. (Ref. 2714)
Size / Weight / Age
Benthic; depth range 2 - 130 m (Ref. 85345)
Climate / Range
Temperate; 53°N - 13°N, 32°W - 37°E
Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea: from Ireland to the English Channel (French coast) to Spain, into the entire Mediterranean, to Morocco and Gulf of Guinea, including the islands of Azores, Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde. Temperate and subtropical.
Maximum depth from Ref. 106595. Intertidal (Ref. 106595) to sublittoral (Ref. 106593). Found on rocky shores (Refs. 106372, 106591, 106593, 106597). Also on grounds consisting of gravel encrusted with calcareous red algae (Ref. 106597). Herbivorous grazer (Ref. 106997). Grazes on encrusting coralline algae on rocks, on dead Posidonia oceanica leaves and their epiphytes, and on the rhizomes and roots of the seagrass when accessible (Ref. 106595). Scrapes the external part of rhizomes and consumes the roots entirely (Ref. 106997). Bioeroder since it feeds on any coralline substrate (Ref. 106598). Members of the class Echinoidea are gonochoric. Fertilization is external. Brooding is common, eggs are held either on the peristome, around the periproct or deep into the concavities on the petaloids. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (echinoplateus) and live for several months before they sink to the bottom using their tube feet to adhere on the ground where they metamorphose into young urchins (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models