Demospongiae | Hadromerida
Hooper, J.N.A., J.A. Kennedy and R.W.M. van Soest. 2000. (Ref. 81108)
Size / Weight / Age
Sessile; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 101942)
Climate / Range
Irregularly shaped. Hispid surface with steep-sided conical projections. Calcitic materials fills in grooves; ostia not visible. Oscula in the apex of the conules is hard to see underwater. Hard and corky texture, not easily compressible and hard to tear. Brown; dark conules than the rest of the body. Tightly packed spicules that criss-crosses each other, with some potruding to the surface.
Found in areas with coral rubbles and sandy substrate (Ref. 84985). Filter-feeder (Ref. 68823). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models