Demospongiae | Hadromerida
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés. 2005. (Ref. 415)
Size / Weight / Age
Reef-associated; depth range 5 - 15 m (Ref. 108813)
Climate / Range
Western Central Atlantic: USA and Caribbean wide.
Massive amorphous to cake shaped. Surface with round low elevations. Large oscules: 0.8 - 1.5 cm wide and small oscules; 0.1 - 0.2cm wide aggregated. Compressible but dense in consistency (Ref. 415). May be roughly globular. Surface is smooth and non-porous, with clusters of pore sieves. External and internal color: black, charcoal or dark gray. External often covered with pale sediment and algal turf (Ref. 85482).
Common on hard, inshore, shallow bottoms and on seagrass beds; less common on shallow reefs. Internal canal system supports an abundance and diverse invertebrate fauna. Known from depths between 0.5 to about 18 m (Ref. 85482). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models