Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Western Indian Ocean and Eastern Atlantic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91362); max. published weight: 3.1 kg (Ref. 356)
Population decline was recorded in the 19th century wherein 295,000 birds in 1956 became 170,000 birds in 1978. Threats include oil pollution, fisheries, and competition for food and space (Ref. 84934). This is a gregarious species that is commonly found in small groups and within 50 km of shoreline. It breeds in huge colonies in burrows (Ref. 91362), mainly on offshore islands (Ref. 84934). Underwater pursuit (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, P. 1987. (Ref. 91362)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models