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Spheniscus demersus   (Linnaeus, 1758)

jackass penguin
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Image of Spheniscus demersus (jackass penguin)
Picture by FAO

Classification
Aves | Ciconiiformes | Spheniscidae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Main reference
Harrison, P. 1987. (Ref. 91362)
References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91362); max. published weight: 3.1 kg (Ref. 356)

Environment
Others

Climate / Range
Subtropical

Distribution
Western Indian Ocean and Eastern Atlantic.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Population decline was recorded in the 19th century wherein 295,000 birds in 1956 became 170,000 birds in 1978. Threats include oil pollution, fisheries, and competition for food and space (Ref. 84934). This is a gregarious species that is commonly found in small groups and within 50 km of shoreline. It breeds in huge colonies in burrows (Ref. 91362), mainly on offshore islands (Ref. 84934). Underwater pursuit (Ref. 356).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

  Endangered (EN) (A2ace+3ce+4ace)

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Threat to humans




Human uses

| FisheriesWiki |

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources
BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Scirus | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown