Aves | Ciconiiformes
Harrison, P. 1987. (Ref. 91362)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91362); max. published weight: 3.1 kg (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Western Indian Ocean and Eastern Atlantic.
Population decline was recorded in the 19th century wherein 295,000 birds in 1956 became 170,000 birds in 1978. Threats include oil pollution, fisheries, and competition for food and space (Ref. 84934). This is a gregarious species that is commonly found in small groups and within 50 km of shoreline. It breeds in huge colonies in burrows (Ref. 91362), mainly on offshore islands (Ref. 84934). Underwater pursuit (Ref. 356).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models