Cephalopoda | Spirulida
Jereb, P. and C.F.E. Roper (eds.). 2005. (Ref. 1695)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 4.5 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 1695)
Pelagic; depth range 300 - 1750 m (Ref. 1695)
Climate / Range
Tropical; ? - 10°C (Ref. 1695); 54°N - 32°S, 89°W - 160°W (Ref. 1695)
Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical oceanic waters.
Rarely exceeds 4.5 cm ML (Ref. 1695). Inhabits depth 600 to 700 m during the day and found in depths less than 300 m at night. Young is captured at depths 1,000 to 1,750 m, which suggests that females lay eggs on bottom of continental slopes (Ref. 1695). Dead shells washed up on the beaches often in large numbers (Ref. 88739). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models