Demospongiae | Dictyoceratida
Vacelet, J. 1987. (Ref. 363)
Size / Weight / Age
Sessile; depth range 5 - 76 m (Ref. 363)
Climate / Range
Indo-West Pacific, Caribbean and the Mediterranean.
Sponge: variable; generally massive; round, but being able equipped with regular lobes (especially at the large specimens); or with large conical lobes osculus. Surface equipped with many small conules regular. Osculus: 0.3 to 1 cm in diameter; often raised. Primary fibers: 0.005 to 0.01 cm diameter; very few formed at their end in the conules by the anastomoses of several fibers; and containing some foreign bodies. The secondary fibers: 0.002 with 0.0035 cm of diameter; in tightened network sometimes finest close to surface. Coloring: color varying of the a little yellowish white to the black according to illumination, whitish with color of rust inside
Maximum size: Can exceed 35 cm in diameter. Depth: common between 5 m (under the overhangs) and 40 m; rare between 40 and 76 m. Importance: The fine sponge; used especially for the toilet, is exploited mainly in Greece, but with a weak production (Ref. 363). Found in the littoral areas particularly coral reefs with rock substrates (Ref. 82063). Common between 5 m (under the overhangs) and 40 m; rare between 40 and 76 m (Ref. 363). Filter-feeder (Ref. 68823). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models