Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Pacific Ocean, Southwest Atlantic and Antarctic Atlantic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 356)
Wingspan: 127 cm (Ref. 8812). A pelagic, long-lived seabird. Breeds mainly along the coast and associated islands in the Antarctic continent, possibly extending inland in the South Shetland and South Orkeny Islands; possibly the southernmost breeding bird in the world, recorded at Amundsen-Scott Station at the South Pole. In some localities, may be found nesting in sympatry with Brown Skuas (Stercorarius antarcticus) and notably feed exclusively at sea while Brown Skuas feed on land (Ref. 95073). However, where there is allopatric nesting, it forages both at sea and terrestrially, mainly on penguin eggs and chicks (Ref. 95081). Exhibits a variety of foraging tactics but feeds mainly on penguins and pelagic fish. First breeding at 7 to 9 years of age. Breeding pairs nest in areas without snow and ice; typically lays two eggs. Size of breeding colonies vary; the largest colony at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, with ca.1000 breeding pairs. At Cape Crozier, breeding span recorded at almost 16 years. Monogamous for multiple seasons and with high site-fidelity. Generally breed in association with Adelie Penguins and may be the only avian predator bearing a major impact on populations of breeding seabirds in the Antarctic (Ref. 95073).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, P. 1983. (Ref. 8812)
Wing: 39.55 cm.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 0.2 - 18.2, mean 6.4 (based on 1318 cells; Ref. 115970
Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100)