Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Indo-West Pacific and Western Atlantic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 78.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 694.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 6.35 cm; tarsus: 5.29 cm; wing: 35.56 cm.
Total Length: 65 to 78 cm; Wingspan: 17 to 20 cm (Ref. 8812). Length: 56 cm; Wingspan: 124 cm in Ref. 91362. Found in the high Arctic, with a close affinity with ice (Ref. 356). Nests in tundras; usual clutch size, 2 eggs (Ref. 97149). A coastal kleptoparasite. Exhibits dipping and plunging behavior (Ref. 356). Known to prey on Brown Lemming (Ref. 97149).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, P. 1983. (Ref. 8812)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 5.2 - 29, mean 25.3 (based on 7586 cells).
Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100)