Aves | Charadriiformes
Harrison, P. 1983. (Ref. 8812)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 78.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 694.00 g (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Indo-West Pacific and Western Atlantic.
Culmen: 6.35 cm; tarsus: 5.29 cm; wing: 35.56 cm.
Total Length: 65 to 78 cm; Wingspan: 17 to 20 cm (Ref. 8812). Length: 56 cm; Wingspan: 124 cm in Ref. 91362. Found in the high Arctic, with a close affinity with ice (Ref. 356). Nests in tundras; usual clutch size, 2 eggs (Ref. 97149). A coastal kleptoparasite. Exhibits dipping and plunging behavior (Ref. 356). Known to prey on Brown Lemming (Ref. 97149).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100)