Aves | Ciconiiformes
LeCroy, M. and C.T. Collins. 1972. (Ref. 8531)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 110.00 g (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean.
Culmen: 3.893 cm; tarsus: 1.996 cm; wing: 23.31 cm.
Total Length: 35 to 43 cm; Wingspan: 76 to 79 cm (Ref. 8812). A coastal species; <30 km (Ref. 356). This species primarily forage inshore (Ref. 95711). Displays plunge-diving and dipping behavior (Ref. 356). In the North Sea off the east coast of Scotland and northern England, they are known to partially feed on the sandeel, Ammodytes marinus. Breeding pairs share incubation and chick-rearing duties in nesting colonies. They surface-feed by scooping prey from the water and carry it in their bills. Adults feed their chicks with regurgitated food (Ref. 95711).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100)