Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Eastern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 190.00 g (Ref. 356)
Total Length: 35 to 41 cm; Wingspan: 76 to 81 cm (Ref. 8812). Coastal (Ref. 356). Nests in marshes; changes nesting site yearly. Piscivorous (Ref. 87786). Displays dipping behavior (Ref. 356). Embryonic deaths, subcutaneous and pericardial edema, growth disruption, liver damage, and unsuccessful breeding and development linked to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the Great Lakes (Ref. 87784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 5.93 cm; tarsus: 2.43 cm; wing: 27.09 cm.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 23.1 - 28.1, mean 27.1 (based on 746 cells; Ref. 115970
Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100)