Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Others; brackish. Tropical
Eastern Central Pacific, Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 300.00 g (Ref. 356)
Total Length: 40 to 45 cm; Wingspan: 91 to 94 cm (Ref. 8812). A coastal species (Ref. 356). Primarily foraging inshore. In the North Sea off the east coast of Scotland and northern England, they are known to partially feed on the sandeel, Ammodytes marinus. Breeding pairs share incubation and chick-rearing duties in nesting colonies. They surface-feed by scooping prey from the water and carry it in their bills (Ref. 95711). Displays plunge-diving behavior (Ref. 356). Adults feed their chicks with regurgitated food (Ref. 95711).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Stienen, E.W.M. and A. Brenninkmeijer. 2002. (Ref. 5815)
Culmen: 5.8 cm; tarsus: 2.54 cm; wing: 32.5 cm.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 9.5 - 28.8, mean 25.6 (based on 3906 cells; Ref. 115970
Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100)