Holothuroidea | Aspidochirotida
Conand, C. 1998. (Ref. 122)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 800); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); max. published weight: 500.00 g (Ref. 122)
Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 15 m (Ref. 122)
Climate / Range
Mean live weight 200 to 500 g; body-wall thickness 0.2 cm. Body firm, rigid, square-ish in cross-section, flattened ventrally (trivium); body wall easily disintegrates outside sea water. Bivium covered with irregular warts, arranged in 10 longitudinal rows; warts larger near mouth. Trivium delimited by a characteristic double row of large papillae 4 to 5 mm; stout podia arranged in 4 rows, on 3 radial bands, their disc about 350 micrometer in diameter. Mouth ventral, surrounded by a half row of papillae and 18 brown, short tentacles. Anus terminal. Calcareous ring with deeply indented radial pieces and triangular interradials. Cuvierian tubules absent. Bivium whitish to grey, with brown irregular dots; trivium lighter. Spicules with very characteristic rosettes, X-shaped, or elongate, numerous in the tegument; presence of numerous C-shaped spicules of 3 sizes; ventral tegument with tables of 2 sizes; some tables have a circular disc with 4 central and about 15 peripheral holes, bearing a spire with 4 pillars ending in a moderately spiny and cross-shaped crown; tables with a larger disc also present, more perforated, with a higher, spiny crown; only the first kind table found in the dorsal tegument; tables in papillae provided with large multiperforated disc, with a long, conical, smooth spire, ending in a single point; ventral papillae containing long, smooth rods; ventral podia have long rods, with central apophasis, and large elongate, multiperforated plates; tentacles with large rods, either curved with few spines, or straight and very spiny.
Probably not harvested, as the tegument disintegrates too quickly. An aquaculture programme for this species is presently being carried out for stock enhancement purposes. A reef species mostly found in shallow areas from near the surface to a depth of 15 m; generally occurs in rubbles or hidden in reef flats. A nocturnal species. Populations not reaching high densities, with mean of around 0.007 per square meter. Biology poorly known (Ref. 122). Common in shallow water inhabitant of rubble and sandy areas; hidden under rocks or dead corals (Ref. 800). Members of the class Holothuroidea are gonochoric and have only one gonad. Spawning and fertilization are both external and some exhibit brooding. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (auricularia) then into doliolaria (barrel-shaped stage) which later metamorphose into juvenile sea cucumbers (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of potential interest
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100)