Holothuroidea | Aspidochirotida
Massin, C., Y. Zulfigar, A.T.S. Hwai and S.Z.R. Boss. 2002. (Ref. 85011)
Size / Weight / Age
Benthic; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 92930)
Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific. Tropical and subtropical.
At day it is found in crevices and under rubble, and emerges at night on reef flat, lagoons and reef slopes (Ref. 92930). Members of the class Holothuroidea are gonochoric and have only one gonad. Spawning and fertilization are both external and some exhibit brooding. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (auricularia) then into doliolaria (barrel-shaped stage) which later metamorphose into juvenile sea cucumbers (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models