Holothuroidea | Aspidochirotida
Conand, C. 1998. (Ref. 122)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 118); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); max. published weight: 2.5 kg (Ref. 122)
Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 25 m (Ref. 122)
Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific, excluding Hawaii.
Mean live weight: 1000-2500 g. Body-wall thickness: 0.8 cm. Body firm, rigid, square-ish in cross-section, flattened ventrally (trivium). Body wall easily disintegrates outside seawater. Bivium covered with irregular conical warts, arranged in 8 longitudinal rows, with smaller papillae in between. Trivium with yellow to pink podia, arranged in rows on the radii, their disc about 380 micrometer in diameter. Mouth ventral, surrounded by a circle of conical papillae, small interradials. Cuvierian tubules absent. Color variable on bivium, yellow to greenish, with black spots; trivium lighter. Spicules with tables in the tegument with 2 forms of discs, some being undulated, with 8 to 20 holes, while others form a denticulate disc with 4 central holes and a variable number of peripheral holes; spire of tables with 4 pillars ending in a moderately spiny perforated crown; some tables with large disc and irregular crown also present; tables in papillae have a very large multiperforated disc; rosettes cross-shaped, branching; X-shaped spicules occur in 3 different sizes; ventral podia with spiny rods and large multiperforated plates showing pentagonal holes; tentacles with long, narrow, and spiny rods and X-, S-, and C-shaped small spicules.
Probably rarely collected as the tegument disintegrates very easily, resulting in a low commercial value of the species. A shallow water species, found in coastal reef and lagoons, mostly from near surface to depths of 25 m. Generally occurs in seagrass beds, rubbles, and muddy-sand bottoms (Ref. 122); on algal beds and on clean sandy bottoms. A pea crab is known to live in the cloacal chamber (Ref. 118). Populations not reaching high densities, with a mean of around 0.005 per square meter (Ref. 122). Sexual reproduction takes place during warm season. A species with a low potential fecundity and late sexual maturity (Ref. 122). Spawning occurs between the months of December and January (Ref. 99899).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
High vulnerability (56 of 100)