Echinoidea | Echinoida
Berkes, F., T.P. Hughes, R.S. Steneck, J.A. Wilson, D.R. Bellwood, B. Crona, C. Folke, L.H. Gunderson, H.M. Leslie, J. Norberg, M. Nyström, P. Olsson, H. Österblom, M. Scheffer and B. Worm. 2006. (Ref. 861)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 10.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 865)
Benthic; depth range 0 - 300 m (Ref. 78719), usually 0 - 50 m (Ref. 113749)
Climate / Range
Northern Pacific, Northern Atlantic and the Arctic. Temperate to polar.
It is found on rocks and soft bottoms from the intertidal to a depth of 300 meters (Ref. 865). Also in tidepools in the low intertidal, found on bedrock outcrops, boulders, cobbles, occasionally in sand (Ref. 113749). Primarily feeds on seaweeds, with few feeding on eelgrass (Ref. 106946). Also feeds on bivalves, gastropods and benthic crustaceans (Ref. 85579). Members of the class Echinoidea are gonochoric. Fertilization is external. Brooding is common, eggs are held either on the peristome, around the periproct or deep into the concavities on the petaloids. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (echinoplateus) and live for several months before they sink to the bottom using their tube feet to adhere on the ground where they metamorphose into young urchins (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models