Demospongiae | Hadromerida
DeFelice, R.C., L.G. Eldredge and J.T. Carlton. 2001. (Ref. 3248)
Size / Weight / Age
Sessile; depth range 1 - ? m (Ref. 108813)
Climate / Range
Western Central Atlantic and Central Pacific.
Encrusting to massive growth form, usually with large lobate or digitate projections. External color is usually red or red-orange, but may also be yellow, dark green, greenish purple, or turquoise, internal color is always yellow-ochre. Texture is dense, flexible and rubbery but easy to tear, somewhat similar to cheese. Surface is generally smooth some with occasional goose-bumps. Spicules are straight sharply pointed tylostyles with large variation in size of about 300 to 700 micrometer. Some smaller ones have irregularly shaped or lumpy heads. Ectosome consists of brushes of smaller tylostyles of about 300 micrometers in size.
Occurs in mangrove ponds (Ref. 86789). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models