Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific and Western Central Atlantic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84934); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 12.7 cm; tarsus: 4.23 cm; wing: 41.91 cm.
Total Length: 64 to 74 cm; Wingspan: 132 to 150 cm (Ref. 8812). Pelagic (Ref. 356). Typically feeds inshore. Colonial breeder on marine islands. Gregarious; freely perches on buoys (Ref. 91362). Capture prey by plunge-diving (Refs. 356, 91362). Maturity at over 2 to 3 years (Ref. 91362).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Li, X. 1990. (Ref. 78638)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100)