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References used for species in the Family Holothuriidae
( sea cucumbers )
 
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[ n = 308 ] 
RefNo
 Description
Abdel-Razek, F.A., S.H. Abdel-Rahman, N.A. El-Shimy and H.A. Omar, 2005 Reproductive biology of the tropical sea cucumber Holothuria atra (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 31(2):383-402.
Afkhami, M., M. Ehsanpour and A. Nasrolahi, 2015 Two sea cucumber species (Holothuria bacilli and H. insignis): first record from the Persian Gulf. Marine Biodiversity Records 8:1-5.
Aguirre, I.O., 2012 Actividad biológica de esponjas y su relación con la complejidad de la comunidad bentónica en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S., México. MSc thesis, Manejo de Recursos Marinos, 132p.
Ahmed, M.I., 2016 Separation of a novel species from Actinopyga mauritiana (Holothuroidea: Holothuriidae) species complex, based on ecological, morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries 20(4):39-45.
Ahmed, Q., S. Bilgin and Q.M. Ali, 2020 Comparison of electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) for estimation of growth parameters for lollyfish, Holothuria (Holothuria) atra and sand sea cucumber, Holothuria (Thymiosycia) arenicola (Holothuroidea: Echinodermata) in the north Marine Science and Technology Bulletin 9(2):145-158.
Akamine, J., 2001 Holothurian exploitation in the Philippines: continuities and discontinuities. Tropics 10(4):591-607.
Al-Khayat, J.A. and M.A. Al-Ansi, 2008 Ecological features of oyster beds distribution in Qatari waters, Arabian Gulf. Asian Journal of Scientific Research 1(6):544-561.
Al-Yamani, F.Y., V. Skryabin, N. Boltachova, N. Revkov, M. Makarov, V. Grinstov and E. Kolesnikova, 2012 Illustrated Atlas on the Zoobenthos of Kuwait. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research.
Alkershi, A. and M.M. Abubakr, 2012 Threatened species of the Yemeni marine ecosystems. Faculty of Science Bulletin 24:59-73.
Alvarado, J.J. and F.A. Solís-Marín, 2013 Echinoderm research and diversity in Latin America. Springer, Berlin, 140p.
Alvarado, J.J. and J. Cortés, 2009 Echinoderms. pp. 421-434. In I.S. Wehrtmann, J. Cortés (eds.) Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Springer 538 p.
Ameziane, N., 2007 Echinodermata of New Caledonia. pp. 337-347. In Payri, C.E., Richer de Forges, B. (eds.), Compendium of Marine Species of New Caledonia. Doc. Sci. Tech. II7, seconde édition, IRD Nouméa.
Anam, R. and E. Mostarda, 2012 Field identification guide to the living marine resources of Kenya. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome: FAO, 357 p.
Antokhina, T.I. and T.A. Britayev, 2012 Sea stars and their macrosymbionts in the Bay of Nhatrang, Southern Vietnam. Paleontological Journal 46(8):894-908.
Apostolidis, C.A. and K.I. Stergiou, 2008 A preliminary compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates. In Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (Eds.), Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Organisms. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10). Fisheries Centre, University of British Colombia [ISSN 1198-6727], pp. 102-121.
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Actinopyga obesa (Selenka, 1867). http://bie.ala.org.au/species/urn:lsid:biodiversity.org.au:afd.taxon:97a9dd3f-7b12-4104-86bf-c44d4afde79a#tab_names [Accessed 11/11/2015].
Aumeeruddy, R. and R. Payet, 2004 Management of the Seychelles sea cucumber fishery: status and prospects. SPC Bêche-de-mer Information Bulletin 19:13.
Australian Biological Resources Study, 2000 Australian Faunal Directory. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/index.html
Ayotte, P., 2005 The relationship between holothurians and the portunid crab Lissocancinus orbicularis. University of Hawaii at Hilo.
Batoy, C.B., 2050 Survey of the marine macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of coastal waters in selected places in Leyte and vicinity. Department of Plant Protection, Visayas State College of Agricultre, ViSCA, Baybay, Leyte 7127. pp 1-284.
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, 2003 Checklist of Hawaiian sea cucumbers. http://www.bishopmuseum.org/
Birkeland, C. and H. Manner, 1989 Resource survey of Ngerukewid Islands Wildlife Preserve, Republic of Palau. A report to the government of Palau, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, World Wildlife Fund, and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 202p.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, T.M. Orrell, D. Nicolson, L.E. Paglinawan, N. Bailly, P.M. Kirk, T. Bourgoin and G. Baillargeon, 2010 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist. Digital resource at http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2010. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Boaden, P.J.S. and R. Seed, 2012 An introduction to coastal ecology. Springer Science & Business Media, 218 p.
Bonham, K., 1960 Carapus homei (Richardson) in a sea cucumber from the Marshall Islands. Copeia 3:255-257.
Borja, A., F. Aguirrezabalaga, J. Martinez, C. Sola, L. Garcia-Arberas and M. Gorostiaga, 2004 Benthic communities, biogeography and resources management. pp 455-492 In Borja, A.; Collins, M. (eds) Oceanography and Marine Environment of the Baque Country, Elsevier Oceanography. Series 70. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Borrero-Pérez, G.H., A. Pérez-Ruzafa, C. Marcos and M. González-Wangüemert, 2009 The taxonomic status of some Atlanto-Mediterranean species in the subgenus Holothuria (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Holothuriidae) based on molecular evidence. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 157:51-69.
Bos, A.R., B. Mueller and G.S. Gumanao, 2011 Feeding biology and symbiotic relationships of the corallimorpharian Paracorynactis hoplites (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 59(2):245-250.
Bourjon, P. and E. Morcel, 2016 New observations of holothurian juveniles on Réunion reefs. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 36.
Boyko, C.B., 2003 The endemic marine invertebrates of Easter Island: how many species and for how long? In p. 155-175 Loret, J.; Tanacredi, J.T. (eds). 2003. Easter Island Scientific Exploration into the World's Environmental Problems in Microcosm. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. 240p.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Bright, T.J., 2010 A list of species from Glover's Reef Atoll, Belize. Wildlife Conservation Society. http://wcsgloversreef.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=PBNMdMHt15g%3D&tabid=1207&language=en-US [Accessed 22/11/2010].
Catala, R., 1979 Ofrandes de la mer. Récifs et lagons de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Tahiti: Edition du Pacifique.
Chantal, C., T. Mulochau and C. Pascale, 2013 Holothurian (Echinodermata) diversity in the Glorieuses Archipelago (Eparses Islands, France, Mozambique, Channel). Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. 12(1):71-78.
Chao, S.-M., C.-P. Chen and P.S. Alexander, 1995 Reproductive cycles of tropical sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in southern Taiwan. Mar. Biol. 122(2):289-295.
Chao, S.M., C.P. Chen and P.S. Alexander, 1994 Reproduction and growth of Holothuria atra (Echinodermata: Holothuroides) at two contrasting sites in southern Taiwan. Mar. Biol. 119(4):565-570.
Chen, J., 2004 Present status and prospects of sea cucumber industry in China. pp. 25-28, In Lovatelli, A. 2004. Advances in sea cucumber aquaculture and management. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 463.
Cherbonnier, G., 1964 Holothuries récoltées par A. Crosnier dans le Golfe de Guinée. Bulletin Muséum National Histoire Naturelle Paris. 2 série. 36(5):647-676.
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2021 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 14 February 2021. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. https://cites.org/eng/app/appendices.php [Accessed 16 February 2021].
Claereboudt, M.R. and K.M. Al-Rashdi, 2011 Shallow-water sea cucumber inventory in the Sultanate of Oman. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 31:25-29.
Clouse, R., D. Janies and A.M. Kerr, 2005 Resurrection of Bohadschia bivittata from B. marmorata (Holothuroidea: Holothuriidae) based on behavioral, morphological, and mitochondrial DNA evidence. Zoology 108:27-39.
Coles, S.L., R.C. DeFelice, J.E. Smith, D. Muir and L.G. Eldredge, 1998 Determination of baseline conditions for introduced marine species in nearshore waters of the island of Kaho'olawe, Hawaii. Bishop Museum Technical Report (14):26p.
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés, 2005 Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(3):638-707.
Conand, C., 1998 Holothurians (sea cucumbers, Class Holothuroidea). p. 1157-1190. In Carpenter, K.E. and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 2. Cephalopods, crustaceans, holothurians and sharks. FAO Rome.
Conand, C., 1989 Les Holothuries Aspidochirotes du lagon de Nouvelle-Calédonie: biologie, écologie et exploitation. Études et Thèses, O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris: 393 p.
Conand, C., 1993 Reproductive biology of the holothurians from the major communities of the New Caledonian lagoon. Mariine Biology 116(3):439-450.
Conand, C., 1981 Sexual cycle of three commercially important Holothurian species (Echinodermata) from the lagoon of New Caledonia. Bulletin of Marine Science 31(3):523-543.
Conand, C., 1986 Les ressources halieutiques des pays insulaires du Pacifique. Deuxième partie: les holothuries. FAO document technique sur les pêches 272.2. FAO, Rome. 108 p.
Conand, C., 2013 Holothuria cavans. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. . Downloaded on 13 November 2013.
Conand, C., 2013 Holothuria conusalba. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. . Downloaded on 13 November 2013.
Conand, C. and C. DeRidder, 1990 Reproduction asexues par scission chez Holothuria atra (Holothuroidea) dans des populations de platiers recifaux. pp. 71-76. In De Ridder C, Dubois P, Jangoux M, Lahaye MC (eds) Echinoderm research. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Conand, C. and N.A. Muthiga, 2007 Commercial sea cucumbers: a review for the western Indian ocean. WIOMSA book series no. 5 v + 66 pp.
Conand, C. and P. Mangion, 2002 Sea cucumbers on la Reunion Island fringing reefs: diversity, distribution, abundance and structure of the populations. SPC Bêche-de-mer Information Bulletin 17:27-33.
Conand, C., R. Gamboa and S. Purcell, 2013 Bohadschia argus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T180541A1645352. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T180541A1645352.en. Downloaded on 17 November 2016.
Conand, C., S. Purcell and R. Gamboa, 2013 Holothuria lessoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T180275A1609567. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T180275A1609567.en. Downloaded on 23 June 2016.
Conand, C., S. Purcell and R. Gamboa, 2013 Holothuria flavomaculata. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. . Downloaded on 13 November 2013.
Conand, C., V. Dinhut, J.-P. Quod and R. Rolland, 2007 Sea cucumber inventory in Mayotte, southwest Indian ocean. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22:19-22.
Dar, M.A. and H.O. Ahmad, 2006 The feeding selectivity and ecological role of shallow water holothurians in the Red Sea. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 24:11-21.
De La Cruz, M.T., J.B.P. Cabansag, M.B.P. Gajelan-Samson, F.A. Diaz and R.J.P. Diodoco, 2015 Diversity and abundance of shallow-water sea cucumbers in Samar and Leyte, Philippines. Asian Journal of Biodiversity 6:49-79.
de la Fuente-Betancourt, M.G., A. de Jesús-Navarrete, E. Sosa-Cordero and M.D. Herrero-Perezrul, 2001 Assessment of the sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) as potential fishery resource in Banco Chinchorro, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Bull. Mar. Sci. 68(1):59-67.
de Loma, T.L., 2015 La biodiversité côtière des îles Australes. p. 57-66 Salvat, B.; Bambridge, T.; Tanret, D.; Petit, J. 2015 Environnement marin des îles Australes, Polynésie française. Institut Récifs Coralliens Pacifique, CRIOBE et The Pew Charitable Trusts Polynésie française. Polynésie française, Tahiti, p. 342.
DeFelice, R.C., S.L. Coles, D. Muir and L.G. Eldredge, 1998 Investigation of the marine communities of Midway Harbor and adjascent lagoon, Midway Atoll, northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Biological survey (14):29 p.
DiSalvo, L.H., J.E. Randall and A. Cea, 1988 Ecological reconnaissance of the Easter Island sublittoral marine environment. National Geographic Research 4(4):451-473.
Dissanayake, D.C.T. and G. Stefansson, 2010 Abundance and distribution of commercial sea cucumber species in the coastal waters of Sri Lanka. Aquat. Living Resour. 23:303-313.
Dissanayake, D.C.T. and G. Stefansson, 2012 Habitat preference of sea cucumbers: Holothuria atra and Holothuria edulis in the coastal waters of Sri Lanka. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 92(3):581-590.
Dissanayake, D.C.T. and M.J.S. Wijeyaratne, 2007 Studies on the sea cucumber fishery in the north western coastal region of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Science 12(2007):19-38.
Dissanayake, D.C.T., S. Athukorala and C. Amarasiri, 2010 Present statis of the sea cucumber fishery in Sri Lanka. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 30:14-20.
Drumm, D.J., N.R. Loneragan, N. Ellis and G.A. Skilleter, 2011 The significance of habitat and exposure to the reef-flat macroinvertebrates of Rarotonga, Cook Islands, for conservation planning. Pacific Conservation Biology 17(4):320-337.
Duffy, C.A.J. and S.T. Ahyong, 2015 Annotated checklist of the marine flora and fauna of the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve and northern Kermadec Ridge, New Zealand. Bulletin of the Auckland Museum 20:19-124.
Ebert, T.A., 1978 Growth and size of the tropical sea cucumber Holothuria (Holodeima) atra Jager at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands. Pacific Science 32(2):183-191.
Enochs, I.C., L.T. Toth, V. W. Brandtneris, J.C. Afflerbach and D.P. Manzello, 2011 Environmental determinants of motile cryptofauna on an eastern Pacific coral reef. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 438:105-118.
FAO, 2016 White threads fish - Holothuria leucospilota - Holothuriidae - Holothuroidea - HFQ. Aquatic Species Distribution Map Viewer http://www.fao.org/figis/geoserver/factsheets/species.html [Accessed 29/03/2016].
FAO, 2016 White teatfish - Holothuria fuscogilva - Holothuriidae - Holothuroidea - HFF. Aquatic Species Distribution Map Viewer http://www.fao.org/figis/geoserver/factsheets/species.html [Accessed 15/03/2016].
FAO-FIES, 2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fishery/collection/asfis/en, [accessed 13/04/2015].
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fishery/collection/asfis/1/en, [accessed 03/07/2008].
Fell, H.B., 1948 The constitution and relations of the New Zealand echinoderm fauna. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77(5):208-212.
Fischer, W., I. Sousa, A. de Freitas, J.M. Poutiers, W. Schneider, T.C. Borges, J.P. Féral and A. Massinga, 1990 Fichas FAO de identificação de espécies para actividades de pesca. Guía de campo das espécies comerciais marinhas e de águas salobras de Moçambique. FAO. Rome. 424 p.
Fishelson, L., 1971 Ecology and distribution of the benthic fauna in the shallow waters of the Red Sea. Mar. Biol. 10:113-133.
Florida Museum of Natural History, 2014 Holothuria immobilis Semper, 1868. Dataset: Invertebrate Zoology, Accessed via http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/210005184 on 2015-07-15.
Florida Museum of Natural History, 2014 Holothuria albiventer Semper, 1868. Dataset: Invertebrate Zoology, Accessed via http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/226567865 on 2015-07-15.
Florida Museum of Natural History, 2014 Labidodemas pertinax (Ludwig, 1875). Dataset: Invertebrate Zoology, Accessed via http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/147419491 on 2015-07-15.
Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary, 2004 Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary Species List. Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary Resources http://floridakeys.noaa.gov/sanctuary_resources/welcome.html [accessed 09/07/2008].
Friedlander, A.M., E. Ballesteros, J. Beets, E. Berkenpas, C.F. Gaymer, M. Gorny and E. Sala, 2013 Effect of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 23:515-531.
Friedman, K., E. Ropeti and A. Tafileichig, 2008 Development of a management plan for Yap's sea cucumber fishery. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 28:7-13.
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Gamboa, R., 2013 Holothuria pulla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T180268A1608692. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T180268A1608692.en. Downloaded on 08 August 2016.
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Gibbs, P.E., 1978 Macrofauna of the intertidal sand flats on low wooded islands, Northern Great Barrier Reef. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 284(999):81-97.
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Harriott, V.J., 1985 Reproductive biology of three congeneric sea-cucumber species Holothuria atra, Holothuria impatiens and Holothuria edulis at Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 36:51-57.
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Hasan, M.H., 2009 Stock assessment of the holothuroid populations in the Red Sea waters of Saudi Arabia. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 29:31-37.
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Jones, O.A. and R. Endean, 2012 Biology and geology of coral reefs volume II: biology 1. Academic Press, 502 p.
Kalaeb, T., D. Ghirmay, Y. Semere and F. Yohannes, 2008 Status and preliminary assessment of the sea cucumber fishery in Eritrea. SPC Beche de Mer Information Bulletin 27(2008):8-12.
Kamarudin, K.R., A.M. Rehan, R. Hashim and G. Usup, 2010 An update on diversity of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 62(3):315-334.
Kangas, M.I., S. Morrison, P. Unsworth, E. Lai, I. Wright and A. Thomson, 2006 Development of biodiversity and habitat monitoring systems for key trawl fisheries in Western Australia. Final FRDC Report - Project 2002/038.
Keeling, J.K., T.R. Irvine, P. Alderslade, G. Clapin, J. Fromont, A.M. Hosie, J.M. Huisman, J.C. Phillips, K.M. Naughton, L.M. Marsh, S.M. Slack-Smith, D.P. Thomson and J.E. Watson, 2011 Marine benthic flora and fauna of Gourdon Bay and the Dampier Peninsula in the Kimberley region of north-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 94:285-301.
Kerr, A., 2014 Survey of the shallow-water echinoderms of Nauru, Micronesia. University of Guam Marine Laboratory Technical Report 158.
Kerr, A.M., 1994 Shallow-water holothuroids (Echinodermata) of Kosrae, Easter Caroline Islands. Pacific Science 48(2):161-174.
Kerr, A.M., K. Netchy and A.M. Gawel, 2006 Survey of the shallow-water sea cucumbers of the central Philippines. University of Guam Marine Laboratory, Technical Report No. 119, 56 p.
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