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References used for species in the Family Hydractiniidae
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[ n = 87 ] 
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Bale, W.M., 1924 Report on some hydroids from the New Zealand Coast, with notes on New Zealand Hydroida generally, supplementing Farquhar's list. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 55:225-268, figs.1-18.
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, 2000 Marine Invertebrates of the Hawaiian Islands - Summary statistics for major taxa.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly and J. van Hertum (eds.), 2007 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bouillon, J., C. Gravili, F. Pagès, J.-M. Gili and F. Boero, 2006 An introduction to Hydrozoa. Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle 194:1-591.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Brinckmann-Voss, A., 1996 Seasonality of hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) from an intertidal pool and adjacent subtidal habitats at Race Rocks, off Vancouver Island, Canada. Scientia Marina 60(1):89-97.
Cairns, S.D., D.R. Calder, A. Brinckmann-Voss, C.B. Castro, D.G. Fautin, P.R. Pugh, C.E. Mills, W.C. Jaap, M.N. Arai, S.H.D. Haddock and D.M. Opresko, 2003 Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophore, Second Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, no,28. XI+115.
Calder, D.R., 1972 Some athecate hydroids from the shelf water of northern Canada. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 29(3):217-228.
Calder, D.R., 1991 Abundance and distribution of hydroids in a mangrove ecosystem at Twin Cays, Belize, Central America. Hydrobiologia 216/217:221-228.
Calder, D.R., 2012 On a collection of hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina) from the west coast of Sweden, with a checklist of species from the region. Zootaxa 3171:1-77.
Calder, D.R., 1993 Local distribution and biogeography of the hyroids (Cnidaria) of Bermuda. Caribbean Journal of Science 29(1-2):61-74.
Calder, D.R. and S.D. Cairns, 2009 Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 381-394 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Calder, D.R., J.T. Carlton and H.H. Choong, 2014 Clava multicornis (Forsskål, 1775): rediscovery of a North Atlantic hydroid (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata) on the Pacific coast of North America. BioInvasions Record 3(2):71-76.
Callaway, R., J. Alsvag, I. de Boois, J. Cotter, A. Ford, H. Hinz, S. Jennings, I. Kroncke, J. Lancaster, G. Piet, P. Prince and S. Ehrich, 2002 Diversity and community structure of epibenthic invertebrates and fish in the North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:1199-1214.
Canter, A.L.P. and A.M.G. Carrascosa, 2002 The benthic hydroid fauna of the Chafarinas Islands (Alborán Sea, western Mediterranean). Zool. Verh. Leiden 337:1-180.
Chiriboga, A., D. Ruiz, N. Tirado-Sanchez and S. Banks, 2016 CDF Checklist of Galapagos corals, gorgonians, sea anemones and hydroids-FCD Lista de especies de Corales, gorgonias, anemones de mar y hydroides alápagos. In Bungartz, F.; Herrera, H.; Jaramillo, P.; Tirado, N.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Ruiz, D.; Guézou, A.; Ziemmeck, F. (eds) Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos.
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley, 1971 Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition).
Dahl, L., 2002 Temporal, spatial and substrate dependent variations of Danish hard-bottom macrofauna. Helgol Mar Res 56:159-168.
Duerden, J.E., 1893 Report on the Hydroida collected by the Royal Irish Academy Survey of the south-west coast of Ireland, 1885, 1886, and 1888. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 3:137-150.
Duffy, C.A.J. and S.T. Ahyong, 2015 Annotated checklist of the marine flora and fauna of the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve and northern Kermadec Ridge, New Zealand. Bulletin of the Auckland Museum 20:19-124.
Galea, H.R., 2007 Hydroids and hydromedusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the fjords region of southern Chile. Zootaxa 1597:1-116.
Galea, H.R., V. Häussermann and G. Försterra, 2007 Cnidaria, Hydrozoa: latitudinal distribution of hydroids along the fjords region of southern Chile, with notes on the world distribution of some species. Check List 3(4):308-320.
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
GBIF, 2015 Hydractinia carnea (M. Sars, 1846). [Accessed 07/08/2015].
GBIF, 2021 Clava multicornis (Forsskål, 1775) in GBIF Secretariat (2021). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2021-07-27.
Glagolev, S.M., L.A. Abramova and A.A. Vedenin, 2006 The list of invertebrate animal species of the Chupa Bay (Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea). The materials of the White Sea Expedition of Moscow Southwest High School Vol. 6. http://herba, [Accessed 23/04/2007]
Gollasch, S. and S. Nehring, 2006 National checklist for aquatic alien species in Germany. Aquatic Invasions 1(4):245-269.
Gotshall, D.W., 2005 Guide to marine invertebrates: Alaska to Baja California, 2nd ed. (revised). Sea Challengers. 117 p.
Gravier-Bonnet, N., 2006 Hydroids of New Caledonia from literature study. In Payri, C., Richer de Forges (eds), B., Colin, F. (préf.). Compendium of marine species from New Caledonia. Nouméa : IRD, 2006, p. 117-123.
Greve, W., F. Reiners, J. Nast and S. Hoffmann, 2004 Helgoland roads meso- and macrozooplankton time-series 1974 to 2004: lessons from 30 years of single spot, high frequency sampling at the only off-shore island of the North Sea. Helgol Mar Res 58:274-288.
Harms, J., 1993 Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight) - a review of recent records. Helgoländer Meeresunters 47:1-34.
Hartlaub, C., 1905 Die Hydroiden der Magalhaensischen Region und chilenischen Küste. Zoologische Jahrbücher 6(3):497-714.
Harvey-Clark, C., 1997 Eastern tidepool and reef: north-central Atlantic marinelife guide. Hancock House Publishers, 64pp.
Häussermann, V. and G. Försterra, 2009 Marine benthic fauna of Chilean Patagonia. Santiago, Nature in Focus. 1000 p.
Healy, B., 1997 Long-term changes in a brackish lagoon, Lady's Island Lake, South-east Ireland. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 97B(1):33-51.
Hogg, O.T., D.K.A. Barnes and H.J. Griffiths, 2011 Highly diverse, poorly studied and uniquely threatened by climate change: an assessment of marine biodiversity on South Georgia's continental shelf. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19795.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System, 2003 Integrated Taxonomic Information System database.
Jennings, S., J. Lancaster, A. Woolmer and J. Cotter, 1999 Distribution, diversity and abundance of epibenthic fauna in the North Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 79:385-399.
Kinne, O. and G.A. Paffenhöfer, 1966 Growth and reproduction as a function of temperature and salinity in Clava multicornis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Helgoländer wiss. Meeresunters. 13:1-2.
Kramp, P.L., 1961 Synopsis of the medusae of the world. J Mar Biol Ass UK 40:1-469.
Kühne, S. and E. Rachor, 1996 The macrofauna of a stony sand area in the German Bight (North Sea). Helgoländer Meeresunters 50:433-452.
Larson, R.J., 1982 Medusae (Cnidaria) from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. pp. 355-380. In K. Rützler and I.G. Macintyre (eds.) The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, I: Structure and Communities. Smithsonian Contributions to Marine Science 12. 535 p., 2050
Markowski, S., 1962 Faunistic and ecological investigations in Cavendish Dock, Barrow-In-Furness. The Journal of Animal Ecology 31(1):43-51.
Medel, M.D. and P.J. López-González, 1996 Updated catalogue of hydrozoans of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands, with remarks on zoogeography and affinities. Scientia Marina 60(1):183-209.
Miglietta, M.P., 2006 Hydractinia antoniisp. nov.: a new, partially calcified hydractiniid (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Hydractiniidae) from Alaska. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 86:993-996.
Migotto, A.E., A.C. Marques, A.C. Morandini and F.L. da Silveira, 2002 Checklist of the cnidaria medusozoa of Brazil. Biota Neotropica 2(1):1-31.
O'Connor, M., C. Hawkins and D. K. Loomis, 2008 A manual of previously recorded non-indigenous invasive and native transplanted animal species of the Laurentian Great Lakes and coastal United States. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 77, 82 pp.
Paffenhöfer, G.A., 1968 Nahrungsaufnahme, Stoffumsatz und Energiehaushalt des marinen Hydroidpolypen Clava multicornis. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 18:1-44.
Pagés, F. and C. Orejas, 1999 Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores of the Magellan region. Scientia Marina 63(Suppl 1):51-57.
Piepenburg, D., N.V. Chernova, C.F. von Dorrien, J. Gutt, A.V. Neyelov, E. Rachor, L. Saldanha and M.K. Schmid, 1996 Megabenthic communities in the waters around Svalbard. Polar Biol. 16:431-446.
Piraino, S., G. Zega, C. Di Benedetto, A. Leone, A. Dell'Anna, R. Pennati, D.C. Carnevali, V. Schmid and H. Reichert, 2011 Complex neural architecture in the diploblastic larva of Clava multicornis (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria). The Journal of Comparative Neurology 519:1931-1951.
Pollock, L.W., 1998 A Practical Guide to the Marine Animals of the Northeastern North America. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, New Jersey.
Rao, G.C., 1991 Meiofauna. Fauna of Lakshadweep. Zoological Survey of India (State Fauna Series) 2:41-135.
Ronowicz, M., A.L.P. Cantero, B.M. Casares, P. Kukliński and J.J.S. Àngel, 2019 Assessing patterns of diversity, bathymetry and distribution at the poles using Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) as a model group. Hydrobiologia 833(1):25-51.
Rosas, R.N.M., 2015 Listado sistematico y distribucion de las especies de medusas (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) en costas Mexicanas. Thesis Que Como Requisito Para Obtener del Biologa Marina, Unibersidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur, 144p.
Rossi, S., J.M. Gili and R.G. Hughes, 2000 The effects of exposure to wave action on the distribution and morphology of the epiphytic hydrozoans Clava multicornis and Dynamena pumila. Scientia Marina 64:135-140.
Roy, V., K. Iken and P. Archambault, 2014 Environmental drivers of the Canadian Arctic megabenthic communities. PLoS ONE 9(7):e100900.
Ruiz, G.M., P.W. Fofonoff, J.T. Carlton, M.J. Wonham and A.H. Hines, 2000 Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31:481-531.
Ruppert, E.E., R.S. Fox and R.D. Barnes, 2004 Invertebrate Zoology. A functional evolutionary approach. 7th Ed. Brooks/Cole, Thomson Learning learning, Inc. 990 p.
Ryland, J.S. and J.S. Porter, 2008 The distribution of Alcyonidium species (Bryozoa) in Orkney and Shetland, with faunistic notes on some locations. The Shetland Naturalist 2(3):129-146.
Sastry, A,G,R,S, and P. Chandramohan, 1989 Planktonic coelenterates of Vasishta Godavari estuary, east coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 18:160-164.
Schuchert, P., 2001 Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Meddelelser Om Gronland, Bioscience 53:1-184.
Schuchert, P. and H.M. Reiswig, 2006 Brinckmannia hexactinellidophila, n. gen., n. sp.: a hydroid living in tissues of glass sponges of the reefs, fjords and seamounts of Pacific Canada and Alaska. Can. J. Zool. 84:564-572.
Segura-Puertas, L., E. Suárez-Morales and L. Celis, 2003 A checklists of the Medusae (Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa) of Mexico. Zootaxa 194:1-15.
Segura-Puertas, L., L. Celis and L. Chiaverano, 2009 Medusozoans (Cnidaria: Cubozoa, Scyphozoa, and Hydrozoa) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 369-379 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Corydendrium parasiticum (Linnaeus, 1767). [Accessed 08/10/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Hydractinia polyclina Agassiz, 1862. [Accessed 08/11/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Hydractinia valens Fraser, 1943. [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Oceania armata Kolliker, 1853. [Accessed 08/10/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943. [Accessed 08/10/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Turritopsis nutricula McCrady, 1857. [Accessed 08/10/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Hydractinia monocarpa Allman, 1876. [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Snoeijs, P., K. Mo and S. Statens, 1987 Macrofauna on rocky substrates in the Forsmark biotest basin March 1984 - March 1985. Naturvårdsverket, 55p.
Soledade, G.O., M. Terossi, J.A. Scioli, F.L. Mantelatto and A.O. Almeida, 2019 A new western Atlantic snapping shrimp of the Alpheus macrocheles group (Caridea, Alpheidae) revealed by morphological, molecular and color data. European Journal of Taxonomy 581:1-21.
Southern Ocean Mollusc Database (SOMBASE), 2011 British Antarctic Survey, SOMBASE. Accessed through GBIF data portal,, 2011-07-15.
Spracklin, B.W., 1982 Hydroidea (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. In Rützler, K. and Macintyr, I. G. 1982. The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, I: Structure and Communities. Smithsonian Contributions to Marine Science 12:355-380. 539pp.
Stampar, S.N., V.B. Tronolone and A.C. Morandini, 2006 Description and life cycle of the hydrozoan Hydractinia uniformis, sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Hydractiniidae), from the coast of southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 1200:43-59.
Vervoort, W., 1949 Notes on a small collection of hydroids from Jersey (Channel Islands). Zoologische Mededelingen 11:133-162.
Voronkov, A., S.D. Stepanjants and H. Hop, 2010 Hydrozoan diversity on hard bottom in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 90(7):1337-1352.
Yamada, M., 1964 Rhizogeton ezoense n. sp., a new hydroid from Hokkaido, Japan. Journ. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. Ser. VI 15(3):395-397.
Zettler, M.L. and F. Gosselck, 2006 Benthic assessment of marine areas of particular ecological importance within the German Baltic Sea EEZ. Progress in Marine Conservation in Europe, Chapter 8:141-156.
Zhang, C., J. Huang, S. Sun, S. Ke, G. Yang, Z. Song and Y. Liu, 2020 Three new species of Anthomedusae (Hydrozoa: Hydroidomedusa) from the Guangdong coastal water, China. Acta Oceanol. Sin. 39(4):84-88.
Zheng, Y., X. Chen, J. Chen, Y. Wang, X. Shen, W. Chen and C. Li, 2003 Biological resources and the environment in East China Sea. Scientific Technology Publishing of Shanghai, 835 p., 2016 Turritopsis nutricola. [Accessed 09/08/2016].
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