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References used for species in the Family Toxopneustidae
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Agassiz, A., 1881 Report on the Echinoidea dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. In Report of the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76: a summary of the scientific results, Zoology 3:1-321.
Alcoverro, T. and S. Mariani, 2002 Effects of sea urchin grazing on seagrass (Thalassodendron ciliatum) beds of a Kenyan lagoon. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 226:255-263.
Alcoverro, T. and S. Mariani, 2004 Patterns of fish and sea urchin grazing on tropical Indo-Pacific seagrass beds. ECOGRAPHY 27:361-365.
Allen, M.J., T. Mikel, D.. Cadien, J.E. Kalman, E.T. Jarvis, K.C. Schiff, D.W. Diehl, S.L. Moore, S. Walther, G. Deets, C. Cash, S. Watts, D.J. Pondella, V. Raco-Rands, C. Thomas, R. Gartman, L. Sabin, W. Power, A. Groce, J. Armstrong, 2007 Appendix F - Glossary and Nomenclature. [Accessed 31/05/2017].
Alvarado, J.J. and J. Cortés, 2009 Echinoderms. pp. 421-434. In I.S. Wehrtmann, J. Cortés (eds.) Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Springer 538 p.
Alves, F., L. Chícharo, E. Serrao and A.D. Abreu, 2001 Algal cover and sea urchin spatial distribution at Madeira Island (NE Atlantic). Scientia Marina 65(4):383-392.
Ameziane, N., 2007 Echinodermata of New Caledonia. pp. 337-347. In Payri, C.E., Richer de Forges, B. (eds.), Compendium of Marine Species of New Caledonia. Doc. Sci. Tech. II7, seconde édition, IRD Nouméa.
Andrew, N. and M. Francis, 2003 The living reef. The ecology of New Zealand's rocky reefs. Craig Potton Publishing, New Zealand. 283pp.
Austin, H,, 1954 Records of Indo-Pacific echinoderms. Pacific Science 8:243-263.
Batoy, C.B., 2050 Survey of the marine macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of coastal waters in selected places in Leyte and vicinity. Department of Plant Protection, Visayas State College of Agricultre, ViSCA, Baybay, Leyte 7127. pp 1-284.
Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Project (BOBLME), 2015 Rapid ecological assessment of the Myeik Archipelago, Myanmar - Cruise 2. BOBLME-2015-Ecology-64
Becking, L.E., D.F.R. Cleary, N.J. de Voogd, W. Renema, M. de Beer, R.W.M. van Soest and B.W. Hoeksema, 2006 Beta diversity of tropical marine benthic assemblages in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Marine Ecology 27:76-88.
Benham, W.B., 1911 Stellerids and echinids from the Kermadec Islands. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 43:140-163.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bos, A.R., B. Mueller and G.S. Gumanao, 2011 Feeding biology and symbiotic relationships of the corallimorpharian Paracorynactis hoplites (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 59(2):245-250.
Bright, T.J., 2010 A list of species from Glover's Reef Atoll, Belize. Wildlife Conservation Society. [Accessed 22/11/2010].
Brown-Saracino, J., P. Peckol, H.A. Curran and M.L. Robbart, 2007 Spatial variation in sea urchins, fish predators, and bioerosion rates on coral reefs of Belize. Coral Reefs 26:71-78.
Buhl-Mortensen, P., L. Buhl-Mortensen, G. Guillaumont and H.R. Skjoldal, 2013 Deep-water megafauna habitats - report from a workshop on the improvement of the definitions of habitats on the OSPAR List, Bergen, 20-21 October 2011. Retrieved from
Cloud, P.E., Jr., 1959 Geology of Saipan Mariana Islands. Part 4. Submarine topography and shoal-water ecology. Geological survey professional paper 280-K.
Cobb, J. and J.M. Lawrence, 2005 Diets and coexistence of the sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus and Arbacia punctulata (Echinodermata) along the central Florida gulf coast. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 295:171-182.
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés, 2005 Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(3):638-707.
Conand, C., S. Stöhr, M. Eléaume, H. Magalon and P. Chabanet, 2013 The Echinoderm fauna of Europa, Eparses Island,(Scattered Islands) in the Mozambique channel (South Western Indian Ocean). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 54(4):499-504.
Dafni, J., 1992 Growth rate of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla elatensis. Israel Journal of Zoology 38:25-33.
Dafni, J., 1983 A new subspecies of Tripneustes gratilla from the northern Red Sea (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Toxopneustidae). Israel Journal of Zoology 32(1):1-12.
Dafni, J., 1983 Aboral depressions in the tests of the sea urchin Tripneustes cf. gratilla (L.) in the Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 67(1):1-15.
de Beer, M., 1990 Distribution patterns of regular sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) across the Spermonde Shelf, SW Sulawesi (Indonesia). In pp. 165-174 De Ridder, C., Dubois, P., Layahe, M. C. and Jangoux, M. (eds.). Echinoderm Research. Balkema, Rotterdam.
de Loma, T.L., 2015 La biodiversité côtière des îles Australes. p. 57-66 Salvat, B.; Bambridge, T.; Tanret, D.; Petit, J. 2015 Environnement marin des îles Australes, Polynésie française. Institut Récifs Coralliens Pacifique, CRIOBE et The Pew Charitable Trusts Polynésie française. Polynésie française, Tahiti, p. 342.
de Loma, T.L., C. Conand, M. Harmelin-Vivien and E. Ballesteros, 2002 Food selectivity of Tripneustes gratilla (L.) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in oligotrophic and nutrient-enriched coral reefs at La Reunion (Indian Ocean). Bulletin of Marine Science 70(3):927-938.
Devaney, D.M., E.S. Reese, B.L. Burch and P. Helfrich, 1987 The natural history of Enewetak Atoll - Volume II Biogeography and Systematics. Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy.
DiSalvo, L.H., J.E. Randall and A. Cea, 1988 Ecological reconnaissance of the Easter Island sublittoral marine environment. National Geographic Research 4(4):451-473.
Drumm, D.J., N.R. Loneragan, N. Ellis and G.A. Skilleter, 2011 The significance of habitat and exposure to the reef-flat macroinvertebrates of Rarotonga, Cook Islands, for conservation planning. Pacific Conservation Biology 17(4):320-337.
Duffy, C.A.J. and S.T. Ahyong, 2015 Annotated checklist of the marine flora and fauna of the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve and northern Kermadec Ridge, New Zealand. Bulletin of the Auckland Museum 20:19-124.
Dy, D.T., F.A. Uy and C.M. Coralles, 2002 Feeding, respiration, and excretion by the tropical sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) from the Philippines. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 82:299-302.
Ebert, T.A., 1982 Longevity, life history, and relative body wall size in sea urchins. Ecological Monographs 52(4):353-394.
Ebert, T.A., 1975 Growth and mortality of post-larval echinoids. Am. Zool. 15(3):755-775.
Elmasry, E., H.A. Omar, F.A. Razek and M.A. El-Magd, 2013 Preliminary studies on habitat and diversity of some sea urchin species (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) on the southern Levantine basin of Egypt. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 39(4):303-311.
Endean, R., 1961 Additional records of Echinodermata (excluding Crinoidea). University of Queensland Papers.
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 03/07/2008].
Fell, F.J., 1974 The Echinoids of Easter Island (Rapa Nui). Pacific Science 28(2):147-158.
Fishelson, L., 1971 Ecology and distribution of the benthic fauna in the shallow waters of the Red Sea. Mar. Biol. 10:113-133.
Fjukmoen, O., 2006 The shallow-water macro echinoderm fauna of Nha Trang Bay (Vietnam): status at the onset of protection of habitats. Institute of Biology, University of Bergen.
Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary, 2004 Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary Species List. Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary Resources [accessed 09/07/2008].
Friedlander, A., E. Ballesteros, E. Berkenpas, E. Brown, P. Bouchet, P. du Prel, J. Petit, P. Rose, G. Siu, D. Tickler and E. Sala, 2015 Biodiversité marie à Rapa et à Marotiri: les îles du bout du Monde. p. 131-143 Salvat, B.; Bambridge, T.; Tanret, D.; Petit, J. 2015 Environnement marin des îles Australes, Polynésie française. Institut Récifs Coralliens Pacifique, CRIOBE et The Pew Charitable Trusts Polynésie française. Polynésie française, Tahiti, p. 342.
Friedman, K., K. Pakoa, M. Kronen, L. Chapman, S. Sauni, L. Vigliola, P. Boblin and F. Magron, 2008 Vanuatu country report: profiles and results from survey work at Paunangisu Village, Moso Island, Uri and Uripiv Islands and the Maskelyne Archipelago. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Coastal Fisheries Programme, 2008.
Fromont, J., M. Salotti, O. Gomez, S. Slack-Smith, C. Whisson, L. Marsh, A. Sampey, T. O'Hara, A. Miskelly and K. Naughton, 2009 Identification of demosponges, echinoderms and molluscs from the Ningaloo Deepwater Surveys - 2006 to 2008 Expeditions. Final report to the Australian Institute of Marine Science, Perth, WA, 29p.
Gardner, J.P.A., M.J. Curwen, J. Long, R.J. Williamson and A.R. Wood, 2006 Benthic community structure and water column characteristics at two sites in the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40:179-194.
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George, D. and J. George, 1979 Marine life: An ilustrated encyclopedia of invertebrates in the sea. Harrap & Co., Ltd., London, 228 pp. (Porifera:1-18, figs. 2-3, pls. 1-9).
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Greenway, M., 1976 The grazing of Thalassia testudinum in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Aquat. Bot. 2:117-126.
Guillou, M., 1996 Biotic and abiotic interactions controlling starfish outbreaks in the Bay of Douarnenez, Brittany, France. Oceanologica acta 19(3-4):415-420.
Hattori, A., 1987 Studies on the dynamics of the biological community in tropical seagrass ecosystems in Papua New Guinea: the second report. Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo.
Hendler, G. and D.L. Pawson, 2000 Echinoderms of the Rhomboidal Cays, Belize: Biodiversity, distribution, and ecology. Atoll Research Bulletin 479:275-299.
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James, D.B. and J.S. Pearse, 1969 Echinoderms from the Gulf of Suez and the Northern Red Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 11(1-2):79-125.
Jangoux, M. and J.M. Lawrence, 1982 Echinoderm nutrition. CRC Press, 700 p.
Jeng, M.-S., 1998 Shallow-water echinoderms of Taiping Island in the South China Sea. Zoological Studies 37(2):137-153.
Kangas, M.I., S. Morrison, P. Unsworth, E. Lai, I. Wright and A. Thomson, 2006 Development of biodiversity and habitat monitoring systems for key trawl fisheries in Western Australia. Final FRDC Report - Project 2002/038.
Kasim, M., 2009 Grazing activity of the sea urhcin Tripneustes gratilla in tropical seagrass beds of Buton Island, southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Coastal Development 13(1):19-27.
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