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References used for species in the Family Endeidae
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[ n = 47 ] 
Arango, C.P., 2002 Morphological phylogenetics of the sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida). Organisms Diversity and Evolution 2(2):119-126.
Arango, C.P., 2003 Sea spiders (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia: new species, new records and ecological annotations. Journal of Natural History 37:2723-2772.
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Bamber, R.N., 2007 Pycnogonida of New Caledonia. pp. 255-257 In Payri, C.E., Richer de Forges, B. (eds.), Compendium of Marine Species of New Caledonia. Doc. Sci. Tech. II7, seconde édition, IRD Nouméa.
Bamber, R.N., 2004 Pycnogonids (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from French Cruises to Melanesia. Zootaxa 551:1-27.
Bamber, R.N. and A. El Nagar, 2007 Pycnobase: Pycnogonida World Database. Available online at
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Child, C.A., 1995 Antarctic and subantarctic Pycnogonida, IV. The families Pycnogonidae, Phoxichilidiidae, Endeidae, and Callipallenidae, including the genus Pallenopsis. Antarctic Research (Series 69, Biology of the Antarctic Seas) 24:112-165.
Child, C.A., 1992 Shallow-water Pycnogonida of Gulf of Mexico. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 9:1-86. Florida Department Natural Resources, Bureau of Marine Resources, Jan. 1992.
Child, C.A., 1998 The marine fauna of New Zealand: Pycnogonida (sea spiders). NIWA Biodiversity Memoire 109. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). Washington, D.C. 20530, USA. 71 p. + Figure 2A-G, 3A-F, 4, 5.
Child, C.A., 2009 Pycnogonida and Xiphosura (Cheliceriformes) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 815-820 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Child, C.A., 1988 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, III: Recent Smithsonian-Philippine Expeditions. Smithsonian Contribution to Zoology No. 468. Smithsonian Instition Press. Washington, DC. 32 p. + Figure 1 -3.
Child, C.A., 1991 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, IX. A shallow-water Guam survey, 1984. Proceedings of Biological Society of Washington 104:138-146.
Child, C.A., 1990 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands VIII. Recent collections from islands of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 103:311-335.
Child, C.A., 1982 Pycnogonida from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. In Rützler, K. and Macintyr, I. G. 1982. The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, I: Structure and Communities. Smithsonian Contributions to Marine Science 12:355-380. 539pp.
Cole, L.J., 1910 Peculiar habitat of a pycnogonid (Endeis spinosus) new to North America, with observations on the heart and circulation. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole Marine Biology Laboratory) 18(4):193-203.
de Kluijver, M.J. and S.S. Ingalsuo, 2005 Pycnogonida: Microbenthos of the North Sea. Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam.[accessed13/01/06].
Dietz, L., J.S. Domel, F. Leese, T. Lehmann and R.R. Melzer, 2018 Feeding ecology in sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida): what do we know? Frontiers in Zoology 15(1):7.
Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp, 2009 Gulf of Mexico origin, waters, and biota. Volume 1, Biodiversity. USA: Texas A&M University Press. 1393 p.
Flemish Government, the Province of the West-Flanders and Belgian National Science Foundation, 1999 Aphia Taxon details. VLIZ: Flanders Marine Institute. Http://[accessed13/01/06].
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
Heard, J.R., 2005 Endeis spinosa. Sea spider. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 17/11/2005]. [accessed09/01/06].
Hily, C. and M. Bouteille, 1999 Modifications of the specific diversity and feeding guilds in an intertidal sediment colonized by an eelgrass meadow (Zostera marina) (Brittany, France). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la vie/ Life Sciences 322(12):1121-1131.
Hogg, O.T., D.K.A. Barnes and H.J. Griffiths, 2011 Highly diverse, poorly studied and uniquely threatened by climate change: an assessment of marine biodiversity on South Georgia's continental shelf. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19795.
King, P.E., 1973 Pycnogonids. Hutchinson of London. London, UK. 144 p.
Krapp, F., 2007 Pycnogonids (updating van der Land). Personal communication October 2007.
Lebour, M.V., 1916 Notes on the life-history of Anaphia petiolata (Kröyer). Journal of the Marine Biology Association (U.K.) 11:51-56., 2050
Miyazaki, K., 2002 On the shape of foregut lumen in sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 82:1037-1038.
Müller, H.-G., 1993 World catalogue and bibliography of the recent Pycnogonida. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Laboratory for Tropical Ecosystems Research & Information Service: Wetzlar. 388 p.
Munilla, T. and A.S. Membrives, 2009 Check-list of the pycnogonids from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters: zoogeographic implications. Antarc. Sci. 21(2):99-111.
Nakamura, K. and C.A. Child, 1983 Shallow wter Pycnogonida from the Izu Peninsula, Japan. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 386:1-71.
Nakamura, K. and C.A. Child, 1988 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, Iv. On some species from the Ryukyu Island. Proceedings of the biological Society of Washington 101:662-670.
Raiskii, A.K. and E.P. Turpaeva, 2006 Deep-sea pycnogonids from the North Atlantic their distribution in the world ocean. Okeanologiya 46(1):63-68.
Roberts, D., 1981 Pycnogonids from Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland. Irish Naturalists' Journal (Belfast) 20(5):189-192.
Ruppert, E.E., R.S. Fox and R.D. Barnes, 2004 Invertebrate Zoology. A functional evolutionary approach. 7th Ed. Brooks/Cole, Thomson Learning learning, Inc. 990 p.
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Endeis meridionalis (Bohm). [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Endeis flaccida Calman. [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Endeis mollis (Carpenter). [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Endeis spinosa (Montagu). [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Southern Ocean Mollusc Database (SOMBASE), 2011 British Antarctic Survey, SOMBASE. Accessed through GBIF data portal,, 2011-07-15.
Stock, J.H., 1994 Indo-West Pacific Pycnogonida collected by some major oceanographic expiditions. p. 24. In Child, C. A. (ed.) The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pycnogonida (Sea Spiders). NIWA Bioderversity Memior 109. National Institute of Water and atmospheric Research (NIWA). )Washington, D.C. 20530, USA. 71 p.
Stock, J.H., 1970 Endeis flaccida Calman, 1923, in Florida: a pycnogonid new to the Atlantic Ocean. Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam) 30:3-4.
Stock, J.H., 1954 Pycnogonida from Indo-West Pacific, Australian and New Zealand waters. Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen's Pacific Expedition 1914-1916. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening I (Kjobenhavn) 116:1-168.
United States National Park Service, 1978 Biscayne National Monument (N.M.), General Management Plan (GMP): Environmental Impact Statement. Northwestern University, 58 pp.
Veena, S., P. Kaladharan, P. Rohit and G.S. Rao, 2008 The pycnogonid (Endeis mollis Carpenter, 1904) associated with hydroids from the inshore waters of Visakhapatnam, India. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 50(1):17-22.
Wyer, D. and P.E. King, 1971 Studies on feeding in British Pycnogonids. (in preparation).
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