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References used for species in the Family Strombidae
( conchs )
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[ n = 275 ] 
Abbott, R.T., 1991 Seashells of South East Asia. Graham Bash, Singapore. 145 p.
Abubakr, M.M., 2004 The Republic of Yemen marine biotic ecosystem (resources-habitats and species). The Republic of Yemen, Ministry of Water and Environment, Environment Protection Authority, 128p.
Al-Ansi, M.A. and J.A. Al-Khayat, 1999 Preliminary study on coral reef and its associated biota in Qatari waters, Arabian Gulf. Qatar Univ. Sci J. 19:294-311.
Al-Khayat, J.A., 1997 The marine Mollusca of the Qatari waters, Arabian Gulf. Qatar Univ. Sci. J. 17(2):479-491.
Al-Yamani, F.Y., V. Skryabin, N. Boltachova, N. Revkov, M. Makarov, V. Grinstov and E. Kolesnikova, 2012 Illustrated Atlas on the Zoobenthos of Kuwait. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research.
Alcolado, P.M., 1976 Crecimiento, variaciones morfológicas de la concha y algunos datos biológicos del "Cobo" Strombus gigas L. (Mollusca, Mesogastropoda). Acad. Cienc. Cuba. Ser. Oceanol. 34:1-36.
Alfaro, A.C., W.L. Zemke-White and W. Nainoca, 2009 Faunal composition within algal mats and adjacent habitats on Likuri Island, Fiji Islands. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 89(2):295-302.
Allan, G.R. and G.S. Stone, 2005 Rapid Assessment Survey of Tsunami-affected Reefs of Thailand. Final technical Report 02-05: 124 p.
Allen, G.R. and R. Steene, 1996 Indo-Pacific coral reef field guide. Tropical Reef Research, Singapore, 378 p.
Allen, G.R. and S.A. McKenna, 2001 A marine Rapid Assessment of the Togean and Banggai Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 20, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Alter, C. and V. von Mach, 2010 Annual Reef Check survey of Kalawy house reef, Safaga, Egypt. Reef Check Germany, Bremen.
Álvarez-León, R., F.D.P. Gutiérrez-Bonilla, J.F. Ospina-Arango and E. Chiquillo-Espítia, 2007 In The Colombian Caribbean: Monographic Revision. The Queen Conch, Strombus gigas, (Linnaeus, 1758) Status Report. Boletín Científico. Centro de Museos. Museo de Historia Natural 11(1):301-332.
Analuddin, K., Nasarudin, W. Masa, W.O. Sarlyana and S. Rahim, 2013 The spatial trends in the community structure of gastropod assemblages the coastal area of Tomia Island, Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia. International Journal of Development Research 3(11):162-167.
Anam, R. and E. Mostarda, 2012 Field identification guide to the living marine resources of Kenya. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome: FAO, 357 p.
Annamary, S. and j. Mohanraj, 2014 By-catch landing of Lambis gastropods in Gulf of Mannar coast, Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 7(10):1509-1512.
ANS, Academy of Natural Sciences, 2007 Academy of Natural Sciences Malacology Database. Accessed through GBIF data portal, 13/09/2007.
Appeldoorn, R.S., 1988 Age determination, growth, mortality and age of first reproduction in adult Queen Conch, Strombus gigas L., off Puerto Rico. Fisheries Research 6(4):363-378.
Appeldoorn, R.S., 1992 Development of a combined model of growth in weight for juvenile and adult Queen conch (Strombus gigas) and its application to the population off La Parguera, Puerto Rico. In: Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, 42, pp. 13-20.
Appeldoorn, R.S., 1990 Growth of juvenile queen conch, Strombus gigas L., off La Parguera, Puerto Rico. J. Shellfish Res. 9:59-62.
Appeldoorn, R.S. and Q.B. Rodríguez (eds.), 1994 Queen conch biology, fisheries and mariculture. Fundación Científïca Los Roques, Caracas, Venezuela. 356 p.
Appukuttan, K.K., 1996 Marine molluscs and their conservation. pp. 66-79. In N.G. Menon and C.S.G. Pillai (eds.), Marine Biodiversity Conservation and Management. CMFRI, Cochin.
Appukuttan, K.K., 1977 Trochus and turbo fishery in Andamans. Seafood Export Journal 9(12):21-25.
Appukuttan, K.K. and K. Ramadoss, 2000 Edible and ornamental gastropod resources. pp. 525-535. In V.N. Pillai and N.G. Menon (eds.), Marine Fisheries Research and Management, CMFRI, Cochin 682 014, Kerala, India.
Argüelles-Ticó, A., Álvarez, F., & Alcaraz, G., 2010 Shell utilization by the hermit crab Clibanarius antillensis Stimpson 1862 (Crustacea Anomura) in intertidal rocky pools at Montepio, Veracruz, Mexico. Tropical Zoology 23(1):63-73.
Arumugam, M., A. Shanmugam, T. Balasubramanian, L. Kannan and S. Ajmalkhan, 2010 Studies on molluscan diversity of Great Nicobar Island-a pre tsunami scenario. Recent Trends in Biodiversity of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Atmadja, W.S., 1977 Notes on the distribution of red algae (Rhodophyta) on the coral reef of Pari Islands, Seribu Islands. Marine Research in Indonesia 17:15-27.
Australian Biological Resources Study, 2000 Australian Faunal Directory. World Wide Web electronic publication.
Avila Poveda, O.H. and E.R. Baqueiro Cardenas, 2009 Reproductive cycle of Strombus gigas Linnaeus 1758 (Caenogastropoda: Strombidae) from archipelago of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina, Colombia. Invertebrate Reproduction & Development 53(1):1-12.
Avila-Poveda, O.H. and E.R. Baqueiro-Cárdenas, 2006 Size at sexual maturity in the queen conch Strombus gigas from Colombia. Bol. Invest. Mar. Cost. 35:223-233.
Baker, N., R. S. Appeldoorn and P. A. Torres-Saavedra, 2016 Fishery-Independent Surveys of the Queen Conch Stock in Western Puerto Rico, with an Assessment of Historical Trends and Management Effectiveness. Marine and Coastal Fisheries 8(1): 567-579.
Baldwin, J. and W.R. England, 1982 The properties and functions of alanopine dehydogenase and octopine dehydrogenase from the pedal retractor muscle of Strombidae (Class Gastropoda). Pacific Science 36(3):381-394.
Barnes, D.K.A., A. Corrie, M. Whittington, M.A. Carvalho and F. Gell, 1998 Coastal shellfish resource use in the Quirimba Archipelago, Mozambique. Journal of Shellfish Research 17(1):51-58.
Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006 Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO.
Batoy, C.B., 2050 Survey of the marine macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of coastal waters in selected places in Leyte and vicinity. Department of Plant Protection, Visayas State College of Agricultre, ViSCA, Baybay, Leyte 7127. pp 1-284.
Bayne, C.J., B.H. Cogan, A.W. Diamond, J. Frazier, P. Grubb, A. Hutson, M.E.D. Poore, D.R. Stoddart and J.D. Taylor, 1970 Geography and ecology of Cosmoledo atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin 136:37-56.
Belize Marine Tropical Research and Education Center., 2011 Species lists.
Berg, C.J., 1976 Growth of the queen conch Strombus gigas, with a discussion of the practicality of its mariculture. Marine Biology 34(3):191-199.
Berry, C., R. L. Hill and B. K. Walker, 2016 Demographics of a nearshore mating queen conch (Lobatus gigas) aggregation on the southeast Florida Reef Tract. Bulletin of Marine Science 92(1): 59-73.
Berthou, P., J.M. Poutiers, P. Goulletquer and J.C. Dao, 2009 Shelled molluscs. In Fisheries and Aquaculture, from Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, [].
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Boletzky, S.V. and R.T. Hanlon, 1983 A review of the laboratory maintenance, rearing and culture of cephalopod molluscs. 44:147-187. In C.F.E. Roper, C.C. Lu and F.G. Hochberg (eds.) Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Biology and Resource Potential of Cephalopods, Melbourne, Australia, 9-13 March, 1981.
Boyko, C.B., 2003 The endemic marine invertebrates of Easter Island: how many species and for how long? In p. 155-175 Loret, J.; Tanacredi, J.T. (eds). 2003. Easter Island Scientific Exploration into the World's Environmental Problems in Microcosm. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. 240p.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Bright, T.J., 2010 A list of species from Glover's Reef Atoll, Belize. Wildlife Conservation Society. [Accessed 22/11/2010].
Brook, F.J., 1998 The coastal molluscan fauna of the northern Kermadec Islands, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28(2):185-233.
Brown, D.P., 2011 Marine gastropods of American Samoa. Micronesica 41(2): 237-252.
Brownell, W.N., 1977 Reproduction, laboratory culture, and growth of Strombus gigas, S. costatus and S. pugilus in Los Roques, Venezuela. Bulletin of Marine Science 27(4):668-680.
Brownell, W.N. and J.M. Stevely, 1981 The biology, fisheries, and management of the queen conch, Strombus gigas. US Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Mar. Fish. Rev. 43(7):1-12.
Brunt, M.A. and J.E. Davies, 2012 The Cayman Islands: natural history and biogeography. Springer Science and Business Media, 604 pp.
Bryceson, I. and A. Massinga, 2002 Coastal resources and management systems influenced by conflict and migration: Mecufi, Mozambique. Ambio 31(7/8):512-517.
Bubble Vision, 2016 Mucky Secrets-Part 20-Sap-sucking Slugs, Headshield Slugs, Sea Hares and Flatworms - Lembeh Strait. [Accessed 14/03/2016].
Bujang, J.S., M.H. Zakaria and A. Arshad, 2006 Distribution and significance of seagrass ecosystems in Malaysia. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 9(2):1-14.
Camp, D.K., W.G. Lyons and T.H. Perkins, 1998 Checklists of Selected Shallow-Water Marine Invertbrates of Florida. Florida Marine Reasearch Istitute Technical Reports TR-3.
Caras, T., 2001 Environmental management and biodiversity conservation of forests, woodlands, and wetlands of the Rufiji Delta and floodplain. Status of the marine habitat and resources adjacent to the Rufiji River outflow. Rufiji Environmental Management Project Technical Report (27):37 p.
Carpenter, K.E. and N. De Angelis (eds.), 2016 The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Vol. 2: Bivalves, gastropods, hagfishes, sharks, batoid fishes, and chimaeras. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO. pp. 665-1509.
Cash, E., 2013 Assessment of Queen Conch, Lobatus gigas, Density, Middens and Permitting Requirements, in South Eleuthera, Bahamas. Doctoral dissertation, Auburn University.
Chongpeepien, T., 1988 Bivalve mollusc culture research in Thailand. Worldfish, 170p.
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CITES, 2012 Appendices I, II and III valid from 3 April 2012. UNEP.
CITES, 2015 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 05 February 2015. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Http:// [Accessed 04/11/2015].
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CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2017 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 April 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 01/08/2017].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2017 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 October 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 08/17/2017].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2021 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 14 February 2021. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 16 February 2021].
CMFRI, 2015 Annual report 2014-15. Central Marine Fisheries Institute, Cochin. 353 p.
Cob, Z.C., J.S. Bujang and M.A. Ghaffar, 2009 Age, growth, mortality and population structure of Strombus canarium (Gastropoda: Strombidae): variations in male and female sub-populations. Journal of Applied Science 9(18):3287-3297.
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D'Asaro, C.N., 1965 Organogenesis, development, and metamorphosis in the queen conch, Strombus gigas, with notes on breeding habits. Bulletin of Marine Science 15(2):359-416.
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Davis, M. and A. Shawl, 2005 Fighting conch, Strombus alatus and Strombus pugilis: new food candidates for aquaculture. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 56:769- 772.
de Graaf, M., M. M. zu Schlochteren and E. Boman, 2014 Non-detriment finding regarding the export of Queen conch (Lobatus gigas) from St Eustatius (Caribbean Netherlands). IMARES Report C173/14.
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