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References used for species in the Family Austrodecidae
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[ n = 40 ] 
Arango, C.P., 2003 Sea spiders (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia: new species, new records and ecological annotations. Journal of Natural History 37:2723-2772.
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Australian Biological Resources Study, 2000 Australian Faunal Directory. World Wide Web electronic publication.
Bamber, R.N., 2004 Pycnogonids (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from French Cruises to Melanesia. Zootaxa 551:1-27.
Bamber, R.N., 2007 Pycnogonida of New Caledonia. pp. 255-257 In Payri, C.E., Richer de Forges, B. (eds.), Compendium of Marine Species of New Caledonia. Doc. Sci. Tech. II7, seconde édition, IRD Nouméa.
Bamber, R.N. and A. El Nagar, 2007 Pycnobase: Pycnogonida World Database. Available online at
Bamber, R.N. and M.H. Thurston, 1993 Deep water pycnogonids of the Cape Verde Slope. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 73:837-867.
Bamber, R.N. and M.H. Thurston, 1995 The deep-water pycnogonids (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 115:117-162.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
British Antarctic Survey, 2017 More losers than winners for Southern Ocean marine life. [Accessed 12/09/2017].
Child, C.A., 1998 The marine fauna of New Zealand: Pycnogonida (sea spiders). NIWA Biodiversity Memoire 109. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). Washington, D.C. 20530, USA. 71 p. + Figure 2A-G, 3A-F, 4, 5.
Child, C.A., 1997 Some deep-sea Pycnogonida from the Argentine slope and basin. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 110 (1):128-142.
Child, C.A., 1994 Antarctic and subantarctic Pycnogonida. III. The family Austrodecidae. Antarctic Research (Series 69, Biology of the Antarctic Seas) 23:49-99.
Clark, W.C., 1972 Pycnogonida of the Snares Islands. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 5:427-452.
Dietz, L., J.S. Domel, F. Leese, T. Lehmann and R.R. Melzer, 2018 Feeding ecology in sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida): what do we know? Frontiers in Zoology 15(1):7.
Häussermann, V. and G. Försterra, 2009 Marine benthic fauna of Chilean Patagonia. Santiago, Nature in Focus. 1000 p.
Hibberd, T. and K. Moore, 2009 Field identification guide to Heard Island and McDonald Islands benthic invertebrates: a guide for scientific observers aboard fishing vessels. Kingston, Tas. : Australian Antarctic Division and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (Australia), 152 p.
Hogg, O.T., D.K.A. Barnes and H.J. Griffiths, 2011 Highly diverse, poorly studied and uniquely threatened by climate change: an assessment of marine biodiversity on South Georgia's continental shelf. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19795.
King, P.E., 1973 Pycnogonids. Hutchinson of London. London, UK. 144 p.
Krapp, F., 2007 Pycnogonids (updating van der Land). Personal communication October 2007.
León, T.M., 2001 A new species of Ammothea (Pycnogonida) and other pycnogonids from Livingston Island and surrounding waters (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Antarc. Sci. 13 (2):144-149.
Melzer, R.R., M. Schrödl, V. Häussermann, G. Försterra and M.F.M. Bravo, 2006 Pycnogonids on cnidarians at fjord Comau, Southern Chile: A report on 2005 SCUBA collections. Spixiana 29(3):237-242.
Müller, H.-G., 1993 World catalogue and bibliography of the recent Pycnogonida. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Laboratory for Tropical Ecosystems Research & Information Service: Wetzlar. 388 p.
Munilla, T., 2000 A new species of Ammothea and other pycnogonids from around Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Antarc. Sci. 12:47-51.
Munilla, T. and A. Soler-Membrives, 2015 Pycnogonida from the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas: taxonomy and biodiversity. Polar Biology 38(3):413-430.
Munilla, T. and A.S. Membrives, 2009 Check-list of the pycnogonids from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters: zoogeographic implications. Antarc. Sci. 21(2):99-111.
Nakamura, K. and C.A. Child, 1988 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, Iv. On some species from the Ryukyu Island. Proceedings of the biological Society of Washington 101:662-670.
OBIS, 2015 Austrodecus (Tubidecus) bathyale Stock, 1991. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Austrodecus calvum Stock, 1991. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Austrodecus (Tubidecus) excelsum Stock, 1991. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Austrodecus (Tubidecus) latum Stock, 1991. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Austrodecus (Tubidecus) oferrecans Bamber, 2000. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Austrodecus (Tubidecus) tuberculatum. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
Raiskii, A.K. and E.P. Turpaeva, 2006 Deep-sea pycnogonids from the North Atlantic their distribution in the world ocean. Okeanologiya 46(1):63-68.
Ruppert, E.E., R.S. Fox and R.D. Barnes, 2004 Invertebrate Zoology. A functional evolutionary approach. 7th Ed. Brooks/Cole, Thomson Learning learning, Inc. 990 p.
Southern Ocean Mollusc Database (SOMBASE), 2011 British Antarctic Survey, SOMBASE. Accessed through GBIF data portal,, 2011-07-15.
Stock, J.H., 1994 Indo-West Pacific Pycnogonida collected by some major oceanographic expiditions. p. 24. In Child, C. A. (ed.) The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pycnogonida (Sea Spiders). NIWA Bioderversity Memior 109. National Institute of Water and atmospheric Research (NIWA). )Washington, D.C. 20530, USA. 71 p.
Stock, J.H., 1957 The pycnogonid family Austrodecidae. Beaufortia 6(68):1-81.
Stock, J.H., 1981 Abyssal Pycnogonida from the Walvis Basin, Southern Atlantic. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 21:453-471.
Stock, J.H., 1978 Abyssal Pycnogonida from the north eastern Atlantic Basin, Part I. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 19:397-413.
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