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References used for species in the Family Callipallenidae
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[ n = 73 ] 
Arango, C.P., 2003 Sea spiders (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia: new species, new records and ecological annotations. Journal of Natural History 37:2723-2772.
Arango, C.P., 2002 Morphological phylogenetics of the sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida). Organisms Diversity and Evolution 2(2):119-126.
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Australian Biological Resources Study, 2000 Australian Faunal Directory. World Wide Web electronic publication.
Bamber, R.N., 2009 Sea-spiders. p. 307-312 Wehrtmann, I.S.; Cortés, J. 2009. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Springer 538pp.
Bamber, R.N., 2004 Pycnogonids (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from French Cruises to Melanesia. Zootaxa 551:1-27.
Bamber, R.N., 2007 Pycnogonida of New Caledonia. pp. 255-257 In Payri, C.E., Richer de Forges, B. (eds.), Compendium of Marine Species of New Caledonia. Doc. Sci. Tech. II7, seconde édition, IRD Nouméa.
Bamber, R.N. and A. El Nagar, 2007 Pycnobase: Pycnogonida World Database. Available online at
Bamber, R.N. and M.H. Thurston, 1995 The deep-water pycnogonids (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 115:117-162.
Bamber, R.N. and M.H. Thurston, 1993 Deep water pycnogonids of the Cape Verde Slope. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 73:837-867.
Bamber, R.N. and Y. Takahashi, 2005 Some littoral sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from Ecuador, with a new species of Anoplodactylus Wilson, 1878 (Phoxichilidiidae). Zootaxa 815:1-8.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Child, C.A., 1991 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, IX. A shallow-water Guam survey, 1984. Proceedings of Biological Society of Washington 104:138-146.
Child, C.A., 1996 The Pycnogonida types of William A. Hilton. II. The remaining undescribed species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 109(4):677-686.
Child, C.A., 1992 Pycnogonida of the Southeast Pacific Biological Oceanographic Project (SEPBOP). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 526:1-43.
Child, C.A., 1995 Antarctic and subantarctic Pycnogonida, IV. The families Pycnogonidae, Phoxichilidiidae, Endeidae, and Callipallenidae, including the genus Pallenopsis. Antarctic Research (Series 69, Biology of the Antarctic Seas) 24:112-165.
Child, C.A., 2002 Some Pycnogonida from the Easter (Hasa) disctrict of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Natural History 36:1805-1821.
Child, C.A., 1998 The marine fauna of New Zealand: Pycnogonida (sea spiders). NIWA Biodiversity Memoire 109. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). Washington, D.C. 20530, USA. 71 p. + Figure 2A-G, 3A-F, 4, 5.
Child, C.A., 2009 Pycnogonida and Xiphosura (Cheliceriformes) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 815-820 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Child, C.A., 1988 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, III: Recent Smithsonian-Philippine Expeditions. Smithsonian Contribution to Zoology No. 468. Smithsonian Instition Press. Washington, DC. 32 p. + Figure 1 -3.
Child, C.A., 1982 Pycnogonida from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. In Rützler, K. and Macintyr, I. G. 1982. The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, I: Structure and Communities. Smithsonian Contributions to Marine Science 12:355-380. 539pp.
Child, C.A., 1992 Shallow-water Pycnogonida of Gulf of Mexico. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 9:1-86. Florida Department Natural Resources, Bureau of Marine Resources, Jan. 1992.
Child, C.A., 1995 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands XI. Collections from the Aleutians and other Bering Sea islands, Alaska. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 569:1-33.
Clark, W.C., 1972 Pycnogonida of the Snares Islands. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 5:427-452.
Coles, S.L., R.C. DeFelice, L.G. Eldredge and J.T. Carlton, 1999 Historical and recent introductions of non-indigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Mar. Biol. 135:147-158.
Cusson, M., P. Archambault and A. Aitken, 2007 Biodiversity of benthic assemblages on the Arctic continental shelf: historical data form Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 331:291-304.
Dahl, L., 2002 Temporal, spatial and substrate dependent variations of Danish hard-bottom macrofauna. Helgol Mar Res 56:159-168.
Dietz, L., J.S. Domel, F. Leese, T. Lehmann and R.R. Melzer, 2018 Feeding ecology in sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida): what do we know? Frontiers in Zoology 15(1):7.
Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary, 2004 Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary Species List. Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary Resources [accessed 09/07/2008].
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
Häussermann, V. and G. Försterra, 2009 Marine benthic fauna of Chilean Patagonia. Santiago, Nature in Focus. 1000 p.
Hedgpeth, J.W., 1961 Reports of the Lund University Chile Expedition 1948-49, 40: Pycnogonida. Lunds Univ. Arsskr. NF, Avd 2, Bd 57:1-18.
Hibberd, T. and K. Moore, 2009 Field identification guide to Heard Island and McDonald Islands benthic invertebrates: a guide for scientific observers aboard fishing vessels. Kingston, Tas. : Australian Antarctic Division and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (Australia), 152 p.
Hily, C. and M. Bouteille, 1999 Modifications of the specific diversity and feeding guilds in an intertidal sediment colonized by an eelgrass meadow (Zostera marina) (Brittany, France). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la vie/ Life Sciences 322(12):1121-1131.
Hogg, O.T., D.K.A. Barnes and H.J. Griffiths, 2011 Highly diverse, poorly studied and uniquely threatened by climate change: an assessment of marine biodiversity on South Georgia's continental shelf. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19795.
Hull, S., 1995 The underwater biology of Filey Brigg: preliminary report 1995. [accessed 02/12/07]
King, P.E., 1973 Pycnogonids. Hutchinson of London. London, UK. 144 p.
Krapp, F., 2007 Pycnogonids (updating van der Land). Personal communication October 2007.
León, T.M., 2001 A new species of Ammothea (Pycnogonida) and other pycnogonids from Livingston Island and surrounding waters (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Antarc. Sci. 13 (2):144-149., 2050
Melzer, R.R., M. Schrödl, V. Häussermann, G. Försterra and M.F.M. Bravo, 2006 Pycnogonids on cnidarians at fjord Comau, Southern Chile: A report on 2005 SCUBA collections. Spixiana 29(3):237-242.
Miyazaki, K., 2002 On the shape of foregut lumen in sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 82:1037-1038.
Müller, H.-G., 1993 World catalogue and bibliography of the recent Pycnogonida. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Laboratory for Tropical Ecosystems Research & Information Service: Wetzlar. 388 p.
Munilla, T., 2000 A new species of Ammothea and other pycnogonids from around Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Antarc. Sci. 12:47-51.
Munilla, T. and A. Soler-Membrives, 2015 Pycnogonida from the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas: taxonomy and biodiversity. Polar Biology 38(3):413-430.
Munilla, T. and A.S. Membrives, 2009 Check-list of the pycnogonids from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters: zoogeographic implications. Antarc. Sci. 21(2):99-111.
Nakamura, K. and C.A. Child, 1983 Shallow wter Pycnogonida from the Izu Peninsula, Japan. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 386:1-71.
Nakamura, K. and C.A. Child, 1988 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, V. Collection of the Kakuyo Maru from Samoa. Proceedings of the biological society of Washington 103(2):304-310.
Nakamura, K. and C.A. Child, 1988 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, Iv. On some species from the Ryukyu Island. Proceedings of the biological Society of Washington 101:662-670.
O'Connor, M., C. Hawkins and D. K. Loomis, 2008 A manual of previously recorded non-indigenous invasive and native transplanted animal species of the Laurentian Great Lakes and coastal United States. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 77, 82 pp.
OBIS, 2015 Parapallene arnaudae Stock, 1991. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Seguapallene tricuspidata Stock, 1991. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
Raiskii, A.K. and E.P. Turpaeva, 2006 Deep-sea pycnogonids from the North Atlantic their distribution in the world ocean. Okeanologiya 46(1):63-68.
Reef Life Survey, 2012 Reef Life Survey.
Ruppert, E.E., R.S. Fox and R.D. Barnes, 2004 Invertebrate Zoology. A functional evolutionary approach. 7th Ed. Brooks/Cole, Thomson Learning learning, Inc. 990 p.
Sirenko, B., S. Denisenko, H. Deubel and E. Rachor, 2004 Deep water communities of the Laptev Sea and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean. Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute Exploration of the Fauna of the Seas 54(62):28-73.
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Callipallene brevirostris (Johnston). [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Callipallene phantoma (Dohrn). [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Callipallene belizae Child. [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Pallenoides spinulosa Stock. [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Parapallene australiensis (Hoek). [Accessed 01/16/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Parapallene bermudensis Lebour. [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Pigrogromitus timsanus Calman. [Accessed 01/16/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Callipallene novaezealandiae (Thomson). [Accessed 01/16/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Seguapallene micronesica Child. [Accessed 01/16/2015].
Southern Ocean Mollusc Database (SOMBASE), 2011 British Antarctic Survey, SOMBASE. Accessed through GBIF data portal,, 2011-07-15.
Staples, D.A., 1979 Three new species of Propallene from Australian waters. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 103:85-93.
Stephensen, K., 1913 Grønlands Krebsdyr og Pycnogonidet (Conspectas Crustaceorum st pycnogonidorum Groenlandiae). Pycnogonida. Meddelelser om Grønland 22:382-409.
Stock, J.H., 1987 Faunistic transit between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean: the deep-water Pycnogonida. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 28:505-519.
Stock, J.H., 1978 Abyssal Pycnogonida from the north eastern Atlantic Basin, Part I. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 19:397-413.
Stock, J.H., 1954 Pycnogonida from Indo-West Pacific, Australian and New Zealand waters. Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen's Pacific Expedition 1914-1916. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening I (Kjobenhavn) 116:1-168.
Stock, J.H., 1994 Indo-West Pacific Pycnogonida collected by some major oceanographic expiditions. p. 24. In Child, C. A. (ed.) The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pycnogonida (Sea Spiders). NIWA Bioderversity Memior 109. National Institute of Water and atmospheric Research (NIWA). )Washington, D.C. 20530, USA. 71 p.
Zettler, M.L. and F. Gosselck, 2006 Benthic assessment of marine areas of particular ecological importance within the German Baltic Sea EEZ. Progress in Marine Conservation in Europe, Chapter 8:141-156.
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