Pycnogonida | Pantopoda
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 12 - 4063 m (Ref. 2279). Tropical
Arctic, Northern Atlantic, Antarctic, and Indo-West Pacific. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 10.0 cm LS male/unsexed; (Ref. 2279)
Minimum depth from Ref. 119523. Shelf to abyssal (Ref. 19). Benthic (Ref. 2952).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Pycnogonida are gonochoric and sexually dimorphic. During copulation, male usually suspends itself beneath the female. Fertilization occurs as the eggs leave the female's ovigers. Males brood the egg masses until they hatch. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into protonymphon larva then to adults.
Raiskii, A.K. and E.P. Turpaeva. 2006. (Ref. 1844)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 0.4 - 6.8, mean 3.6 (based on 659 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)