Bivalvia | Mytilida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 7726). Temperate, preferred 9°C (Ref. 107945); 89°N - 58°S, 112°E - 61°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 11.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 95344); max. reported age: 24 years (Ref. 8702)
Minimum depth (intertidal zone) from Ref. 95344. Inhabits intertidal areas (Ref. 2789). Found in quiet, sheltered areas forming dense aggregates on hard surfaces; attached by strong byssal threads (Ref. 95344). In the Vainameri, north-eastern Baltic Sea, most abundant in silty substrate (Ref. 95753). It is infaunal on sand and eelgrass beds and epifaunal on eelgrass beds (Ref. 95819). Also found on mixed sediments with gravel (Ref. 118257). Semi-mobile suspension feeder (Refs. 95752, 96470). Feeds on phytoplankton such as green algae, dinoflagellates and diatoms (Ref. 95805).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam.
Harvey-Clark, C. 1997. (Ref. 7726)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Aquaculture: production, species profile; Fisheries: landings, species profile | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.05-1.14; tmax=24).
): 4.4 - 16.1, mean 10.2 (based on 1512 cells).
Prior r = 0.54, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.82, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100).