Malacostraca | Decapoda
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 80 m (Ref. 8). Tropical, preferred 25°C (Ref. 107945); 39°N - 35°S, 37°E - 180°E
Indo-West Pacific: from Mozambique to Western Australia including Persian Gulf, Red Sea and Arabian Sea; then from North Korea down to Gulf of St. Vincent, South Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 119750); 22 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 60.00 g (Ref. 116487)
Intertidal (Ref. 374) to subtidal (Ref. 106854). Juveniles are found on seagrass beds and mangroves higher in the shoreline (Ref. 106908). Inhabits open sea areas with sandy or muddy and sandy bottom (Ref. 374). Nocturnal (Refs. 10, 85270). Burrows on sand at daytime (Ref. 801). Spawns from June to December, with peaks from June to August and November (Ref. 116211).
Life cycle: pelagic larvae (four larval stages: nauplii, zoea, mysis and post-larvae) to inshore juvenile to offshore adult (Ref. 107331). Mating behavior: Precopulatory courtship ritual is common (through olfactory and tactile cues); usually indirect sperm transfer (Ref. 833). The male transfers its spermatophore to the female's thelycum (Ref. 107331).
Holthuis, L.B. 1980. (Ref. 8)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 16.8 - 28.7, mean 26.7 (based on 1166 cells).
Prior r = 1.12, 95% CL = 0.74 - 1.69, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Low vulnerability (10 of 100).