Malacostraca | Decapoda
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 119 m (Ref. 356). Subtropical, preferred 24°C (Ref. 107945); 40°N - 18°N, 97°W - 74°W
Western Atlantic: from New Jersey, USA to Yucatan, Mexico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm Max length : 22.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 109188); 20 cm TL (female); max. reported age: 2.00 years (Ref. 109223)
Maximum total length of unsexed and female from Ref. 109188 and Ref. 8, respectively. Maximum standard length: 19.0 cm. Maximum depth from Ref. 108758. Occurs at depths from 2 to 90 m in bottom mud or peat with sand or clay in marine (adults) and estuarine (juveniles) environments. Temperate to tropical climates (Ref. 8). Migrates to deeper areas within estuaries as it grows. Juveniles are also found across vegetated marsh edge, oyster reefs, and oyster shell deposits and non-vegetated bottom (Ref. 106898). Regularly uses vegetated intertidal marshes when the habitat is tidally inundated. Omnivore, feeds on live and dead plant and animal matter, including detritus (Ref. 67681) but also an epibenthic predator, feeding on small crustaceans, bivalves, polychaetes and oligochaetes (Ref. 108790).
Life cycle: Eggs hatch into planktonic nauplii. The larvae undergo five nauplial, three protozoeal, and three mysis stages; then into two postlarval stages (Refs. 254, 79469). Mating behavior: Precopulatory courtship ritual is common (through olfactory and tactile cues); usually indirect sperm transfer (Ref. 833). Copulation occurs when the male attached its spermatophore to the thelycum of the female (Ref. 109188). Spawning may occur once or up to four times (Ref. 109189).
Holthuis, L.B. 1980. (Ref. 8)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental
FAO - Aquaculture: production; Fisheries: landings, species profile | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 15.3 - 27.3, mean 24.3 (based on 338 cells).
Prior r = 0.56, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Low vulnerability (11 of 100).