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Spirula spirula   (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ram's horn squid

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Spirula spirula  AquaMaps  Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Spirula spirula (Ram\
Spirula spirula
Picture by Grist, John and Maria

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Cephalopoda | Spirulida | Spirulidae

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Pelagic; depth range 100 - 1750 m (Ref. 1695).  Tropical; ? - 10°C (Ref. 1695); 69°N - 32°S, 89°W - 160°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical oceanic waters. Tropical to polar.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 1 - ? cm Max length : 4.5 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 1695)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Minimum depth from Ref. 106682. Rarely exceeds 4.5 cm ML (Ref. 1695). Migrates from 550 to 1000 meters during the day, and 100 to 300 meters at night (Ref. 106682). Young is captured at depths 1,000 to 1,750 m, which suggests that females lay eggs on bottom of continental slopes (Ref. 1695). Dead shells washed up on the beaches often in large numbers (Ref. 88739).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Jereb, P. and C.F.E. Roper (eds.). 2005. (Ref. 1695)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 29 March 2009

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

| FishSource |


More information

Common names
Egg development
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Gomexsi | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Tree of Life | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 4.7 - 11.6, mean 7.1 (based on 951 cells).
Price category (Ref. 80766)